Was Professor Stock right ? Ask the History of
Dr. med. dent. W. Breenkoetter; Source: Biologische Medizin, Nr. 4/1984; p
194 – 197. Translated by
J.R.Metz, E. Sulger Büel and Kathryn Sturtridge, June 2003
In April 1926 Dr. Alfred Stock, Professor of Chemistry at the Kaiser Wilhelm
Institute in Berlin, published a paper entitled: “The Danger of Mercury
Vapour”. His own illness, which had driven him to the brink of desperation,
impelled him “to warn anyone involved with mercury during their work of the
danger of this volatile metal”.
In a long report he describes his suffering:
“For almost 25 years I experienced increasing ailments, which sometimes
became unbearable to the point that I doubted I would be able to continue my
scientific work. However, no doctor succeeded in discovering the reason for
this condition. The symptoms were: mental dullness, exhaustion, lack of
motivation and inability to work- particularly intellectually. The most
depressing condition was loss of memory. This continually worsened, so that
eventually I came close to total memory loss. I forgot telephone numbers on
the way to the phone, I forgot all I had learned, and I forgot my own
published scientific work. In addition, I suffered from depression and
tormenting restlessness. Normally high- spirited, I now shied away from
company, avoided society, kept out of
people’s way and shunned social contacts. I lost pleasure in everything. My
sense of humour disappeared and obstacles which seemed no problem at all
before, now appeared insurmountable.”
In the early twenties, Stock’s co-workers also started to complain of health
problems which were quite similar to his own initial symptoms. Dr. Lewin, the
most distinguished German toxicologist of the time, was consulted. He stated
with certainty that all who had fallen ill at the institute were suffering
from mercury intoxication. Indeed, tests showed there was mercury in the air
of the laboratory as well as in the urine of all the sufferers. Stock had
been in contact with mercury for 25 years but had never considered that
mercury vapour might have an impact on his health.
Lewin urgently recommended taking the utmost care in laboratories and also
advised removing amalgam dental fillings. This advice drove Stock to perform
his own trials. He determined the amount of mercury released from amalgam
dental fillings under body-temperature and, in three different tests, found
it to be 0.487, 0.9 and 1.27 micrograms per day1. A filling which had been in
place a long while released 2.1 _g/day. (The limit for drinking water is
0.004 _g/litre (Germany 1984)). Stock urgently demanded that amalgam should
be avoided whenever possible. “It will become evident one day that the
careless introduction of amalgam into dentistry was a grave sin against
Stock was one of the most distinguished chemists of his time. His name and
reputation ensured that great attention was paid to his publications. Medical
journals, lay press and radio picked up the subject matter. Among the dental
community, however, a storm of indignation arose and it was argued that
although millions of people had had amalgam fillings, mercury intoxication
had never been observed. The Society of German Dentists declared Stock’s
accusations unjustified. This rejection motivated him to continue what he
felt was his missionary struggle. A tide of reports about patients with
mercury intoxication, findings of an 1) In the German reprint in “Handbuch
der Amalgamvergiftung” by M. Daunderer there are milligrams given instead,
which is impossible. Stocks original text has not been consulted.
investigation that took place at the Charity Hospital Berlin, results from
trials with animals and from pathology on corpses showed him that exposure to
small quantities of mercury over a long period would damage human health.
Until his death in 1946, Stock’s publications list some 50 papers dealing
with mercury, mostly directed against dental practice.
Stock queried past events as well. Faraday’s loss of memory, Pascal’s
infirmity, the intermittent memories of Berzelius, Liebig, Woehler and health
complaints of Hertz and Oswald pointed to mercury intoxication. All had
worked with mercury during their lifetime. It is surprising, however, that
Stock did not follow another more obvious clue. His accusation that the
careless introduction of amalgam was a grave sin against humanity, leads us
to ask when amalgam was introduced? And furthermore, did any illness appear
at the same time which had not been known previously? Research into these
questions would have given Stock serious arguments in support of his
suspicions. Surprisingly, up until now nobody has endeavoured to investigate
the history of medicine in the light of Stock’s contention.
The nineteenth century, and the entry into the industrial age, witnessed
turbulent scientific development. German medicine soon led; only in dentistry
did it, along with the rest of Europe, lag behind. In this field, the
dentists of America were ahead. This great land had left its pioneer years
behind; England’s guardianship had been shaken off. Free from repression and
not held back by tradition and arrogance, a society arose in which all had
the chance to develop according to their abilities. Trade and industry
flourished. Wealth was widely distributed unlike anywhere else in the world.
Probably this coinciding of freedom and wealth explains why dentistry in
America outstripped that of other countries. At this time dental treatment
was the privilege of the wealthy. In Europe the broad mass of people were
poor. Therefore how could a profession develop if there was no demand? In
America, however, a healthy dental community was developing. Even if some
were disreputable, this community also produced capable dentists who laid the
foundations for our present standard of dental medicine.
From early on dentists had tried to conserve teeth affected by caries.
Searching for a material easy to handle, they discovered amalgam. The point
at which this silver/mercury was first applied is well
established. In 1830 the Crawcour family of London-based dentists began
filling dental cavities with amalgam. Unfortunately the Crawcours were
unworthy representatives of their profession. Without removing any caries
they took only minutes to cram amalgam into cavities and promised their
patients miracles. In 1833 two Crawcour brothers settled in New York and with
them the amalgam age had begun. Their treatment room was elegant, their
manners excellent, but their methods deceitful. Nevertheless, the wealthiest
citizens became their patients and in a short time, the Crawcours had made a
fortune. This highly-profitable “treatment” was imitated by many. There are
no statistics to show how many ‘dentists’ set up in business to fill teeth
but in 1830 the number of dental establishments in the USA was about 300, by
1835 this had more than doubled, by 1842 there were 1400 and by 1847 the
number rose to 1600-1700. Many of the practitioners had few scientific
qualifications. Their serious colleagues began to oppose the methods of the
Crawcours and their followers. This was the “first amalgam war”. The attacks
against the Crawcours were justified. The amalgams were of inferior quality;
they did not hold sufficiently but broke up easily and contracted. It was
also feared that mercury in the amalgam might evaporate and intoxicate the
patients. However, this could not be proved scientifically. Mercury poisoning
was well known in medicine and the opponents of amalgam had predicted mercury
poisoning as a consequence of its use. However, their prognosis was not
confirmed. In spite of the increasing number of amalgam
dental fillings, no poisonings occurred. The main argument against amalgam
collapsed and, in consequence, amalgam’s opponents lost the battle.
This extraordinary controversy did not touch Europe at all. The standard of
European dentistry was far below that of America. Germany lagged behind even
England and France. The advanced position of American dentistry at that time
provides an exceptional opportunity to check Professor Stock’s accusation
retrospectively. Several decades before the rest of the world, only in
America were amalgam dental fillings introduced into human bodies. It was
like a laboratory test in vivo on an enormous scale. If indeed amalgam
fillings do affect people’s health, this must have shown up
more than 100 years ago in America. The foretold mercury poisoning did not
occur. However, is it possible that the effects on health did appear, but
that the connection with mercury was not recognised? This is a challenge for
medical history. The questions may be set out clearly.
• Did a hitherto unknown illness appear in America after 1833?
• Did this illness continue to escalate?
• Was this illness restricted for some decades to America?
• Did this illness affect all levels of the population?
• When and in what sequence did it later affect Europe?
• Was the aetiology of this illness known?
• Was there a successful treatment?
• Were the symptoms of this illness similar to those described by Stock?
The history of medicine indeed has answers to these questions.
Starting around the middle of the 19th century, hitherto unknown health
disorders began to alarm
American doctors. Initially they believed that they could classify these
frequent but difficult to define, vague and barely tangible symptoms, this
anxiousness, fatigue, irrational fear, mental weakness and hopelessness, as
hypochondria or hysteria. However, they soon recognised that they were
confronted with a new, hitherto unknown illness. Too many of the symptoms of
hypochondria and hysteria were absent. Furthermore, its spread proved that
its pattern could not be classed with that of known diseases. Initially only
a few patients showed symptoms, but within years there were thousands and
eventually hundreds of thousands.
George M. Beard, a neurologist from New York, devoted his life to researching
this illness. He was the first American doctor to find a place in the history
of medicine. Born in 1839, from 1866 he specialised in electrotherapy and
neurology. He discovered his field of research when he realised how many
Americans suffered from “American nervosisme”. He collected endless lists of
complaints and catalogued dozens of symptoms. It seemed impossible to bring
the many manifestations into line. The search for organic irregularities was
unsuccessful. Despite intensive research Beard did not find any clue as to
the reasons for this strange illness. Nevertheless, he was convinced that the
numerous complaints represented the symptoms of a single disease. Lacking any
plausible explanation, Beard considered that natural weakness of the nervous
system was responsible for it. He stressed that a patient’s constitution and
intellectual capability are inborn and so the strength of the nervous system
is predetermined. A dynamo, he pointed out, restricted to a 100-lamp capacity
will break down when another 500 lamps are connected. Our nervous system
follows similar laws. A man endowed with nervous energy can easily waste it;
a man low in energy will collapse when overloaded. With that explanation
Beard was able to account for the various symptoms. He called the illness
neurasthenia and classified it as a functional disease which means that the
reasons for it were not known at the time. Beard was convinced that at some
point in the future its cause would be found. He emphasised strongly that
neurasthenia was neither a mental nor an imaginary disease. It was as real as
smallpox, typhoid or cholera, and as body-related as a broken leg.
Furthermore Beard stated that neurasthenia was an American disease. While it
grew into epidemic
dimensions in America, it was scarcely to be found in Europe. Beard was very
familiar with Europe; he had travelled there several times and was well aware
of the state of its medical knowledge. He respected German medicine highly.
The acceptance of his interpretation of the illness by German
colleagues would have enhanced his position in America. However, German
medical opinion, remained silent. In Germany the illness was simply too rare
to attract attention and be studied and
described. Only after Beard’s death in 1883 did neurasthenia start to spread
throughout Germany. Beard’s remark that “neurasthenia is an American disease”
remained correct for several decades.
There was a further equally extraordinary sign of “American Nervousness”. It
affected only wealthy
people. In factory areas, in poor quarters and out in the country it did not
appear. The sufferers were high class. In some states the illness could be
found “in every house where the inhabitants were engaged in intellectual
Beard had found an explanation for the illness. Nevertheless, what was the
reason that nervous energy failed solely in one class of society and
particularly in the USA? There was only one possibility. Neurasthenia must be
the result of American civilisation and its social order. For Beard, the
triggers were steam power, the telegraph, the press, women’s intellectual
activities and unlimited freedom for all. In these achievements America was
decades ahead of all other countries and so was their medical consequence,
neurasthenia. The successful were successful thanks to their sensitive
nervous system. And this sensitivity made Americans susceptible to
In Europe neurasthenia was scarcely to be found. “Germany, Russia, Italy and
Spain are acquainted with it least, it is more frequent in France, and has
spread even more throughout England” (Beard). Only in the last decennium of
the nineteenth century did it appear in Germany and became the most common
nervous illness. German medical literature began to deal with it late. In
1883 Stein commented as follows: “In German literature neurasthenia is poorly
represented because patients belonging to better-placed classes are generally
still classified as hypochondriacs”. Twenty years later there was plenty of
literature about neurasthenia in Germany. German scientists too saw the
unexpectedly fast progress of humanity as an element to which our brains had
to be adjusted. “The new means of transport, telegraph, telephone, universal
defence system, and compulsory schooling is ruining our nerves.”
Several ways were tried of treating neurasthenia. Beard had his own special
remedies; in Germany diet and water treatments, sea bathing and electro-
treatments were applied. Nothing really helped. Up until today no light has
been shed convincingly onto the gloom that has obscured the illness
The history of medicine has clear answers. From 1833 onwards amalgam was in
use in America. A new illness, neurasthenia, appeared. For decades amalgam
was in use only in America. For decades neurasthenia remained an American
illness. Dental treatment was a privilege of the wealthy classes.
Neurasthenia was the illness of the wealthy classes. England was the first to
adopt American dental practice, France followed and Germany even later. Beard
discovered that neurasthenia penetrated Europe in the same sequence. The
reason for the illness was not discovered nor was any successful treatment.
If we compare Stock’s health problems with the symptoms of neurasthenia we
see a large degree of similarity. Even succinct formulations in the early
literature are to be found in the same words in Stock’s writings.
Therefore we are forced to ask: Did Stock not suffer from mercury
intoxication at all but from neurasthenia? That Stock’s disease was mercury
intoxication was never doubted. Nevertheless, we must counter this by asking:
Was neurasthenia not a disease sui generis, was it mercury intoxication? This
question, arising from demonstrable coincidences, has never been considered
by the medical profession and cannot be answered by the literature.
One author, however, provides some hints, George M. Beard! Already in the
introduction to his standard work he states: “Neurasthenia is an American
disease, insofar as it is present far more in America than in any other part
of the civilised world and was first described here (equally with tooth decay
which is frequently one of its symptoms).”An even more conclusive passage of
text reads: “Rapid decay and tooth irregularities are symptoms of
neurasthenia. They are also consequences of the impoverishment of the nervous
system. It is undeniable that early tooth decay is one of the
results of civilisation. Teeth are seldom healthy when the general physical
condition is weakened and in this event only the skill of modern dentistry
will maintain them in working order. Dentists, therefore, are barometers of
modern civilisation. Their increase in numbers and their prosperity are
instructive for modern sociology. American dentists are the best in the
world because American teeth are the worst. Among the social classes of
America which are used to intellectual work and lead office lives teeth
usually start to deteriorate before the age of 20 and only very seldom is a
patient of 35 or 40 with a nervous complaint seen to have healthy teeth,
regardless of the degree of care which has been spent on preserving them. It
is most probable that where someone has their own teeth, most will be filled
and remain intact only by the skill of dentists.” 2
Bear’s striking remark about his patients’ ruined sets of teeth and their
dental fillings should be the
subject of further research. More than likely in America documentation exists
providing evidence about the medical and dental treatment of neurasthenic
patients. It would be tragic if dentistry which was so respectfully commented
on by Beard had such a disastrous connection to the illness on which he
devoted his life’s work.
I am not a historian, nor a neurologist nor a scientist. I am one of
thousands of dentist going about their daily work. I do not feel authorised
to draw conclusions from my studies. On the contrary, the thought haunts me
that the propositions in this article might be taken up too quickly and
without a critical approach. If an investigation into medical history were to
bring us new insights, science could subject them to unbiased examination.
2) The text cited is not the original wording of Beard; it is the
retranslation of the German text most
likely taken from a German edition of Beards book. An original English
“Beard” was not available.
Complex as the amalgam issue. It is clear that Morley
Safer, the host of this segment, feels for the patients who have recovered,
and questions the American Dental Association’s motives and protectors (ie
the Food and Drug Administration) who are more interested in covering their
legal positions rather than taking the lead in helping the many sufferers of
60 Minutes, Originally Aired December 16, 1990
Is there poison in your mouth?
Produced by Patti Hassler
Hosted by Morely Safer
“This is the kind of story we approach with some caution. The question is:
“Is there poison in your mouth?”. The American Dental Association says there
isn’t. But some of its members say there is, and have stopped using it. “It”
is a filling, a silver amalgam filling, the dentists’ filling of choice for
more than a century.
More than a hundred million of them were put into American mouths last year.
What you probably don’t know is that these so-called silver fillings are 50%
mercury, and mercury is more poisonous than lead or even arsenic. Because
it’s been around so long, and because it was assumed that the mercury was
made stable when mixed with other metals, amalgam fillings were never tested
for safety. One of those remedies that the Food and Drug Administration
But now a growing number of scientists, doctors, and dentists are saying that
silver amalgams should be banned.”
(Cut to Dentist’s Office)
Safer: “Last summer the EPA banned mercury from indoor latex paint because of
mercury vapor. The vapor level in this patient’s mouth after chewing for 10
minutes is 92 times higher than the mercury vapor level in a newly painted
room. Three times higher than the U.S. government allows in the workplace.
This is a silver amalgam filling. It is made of silver, copper, tin, and
zinc, and....mercury. Half of it is mercury. No specific disease has yet been
directly linked to mercury from fillings, but now a number of medical schools
are looking at the relationship between mercury vapor in the mouth and a
whole variety of diseases: Alzheimers, Arthritis and Colitis, have all been
linked to mercury poisoning.
Mercury in the workplace has produced kidney damage, brain damage, birth
defects, and symptoms of multiple sclerosis.”
(Cut to Dr. Vimy Interview)
“There is no safe threshold for mercury exposure. None! And there isn’t
someone, somewhere, who may not have a very violent reaction even to the
lowest amounts of mercury.”
“Dr. Murray Vimy is a scientific consultant to the World Health
Organization’s Committee on Mercury in the Environment. He’s a researcher at
the Unversity of Calgary Medical School, and he’s a dentist. He got rid of
mercury in his own practice 8 years ago, when he learned that mercury vapor
routinely escapes from amalgam fillings.”
“When I measured mercury coming off of fillings, that was reasonable doubt in
my mind. It was enough reasonable doubt that I made a clinical decision for
my patients to stop using it.”
(Cut to Dr. Heber Simmons ADA Interview)
“You will get some mercury vapor, there’s no doubt about that.”
“Dr. Heber Simmons speaks for the American Dental Association. Even though
more and more American dentists have serious doubts about amalgam, the ADA,
which sets standards and approves products, says it is perfectly safe. Up
until 7 years ago, the ADA said no vapor at all was released from fillings.”
“But the amounts that we are seeing are far below any levels that could cause
a problem, and the levels we are seeing are simply not clinically
“So you concede that there is a constant release of mercury vapor?”
“Oh we, we don’t dispute that at all. But, but the amount that is being
release when you chew, is such of a small amount, and a miniscule amount,
that it is not gonna cause a problem.”
(Cut to Dr. Murray Vimy)
“This issue is, chronic exposure - low dose, to a heavy metal. And our
laboratory is the entire human population in the Western World who has had
amalgams. And no one has ever really looked at that aspect of mercury
exposure. A great deal is known about acute exposures: One time, two time,
large exposures. But this is something that people have day after day after
day. And we’re just at the beginning of that trail of investigations.
(Cut to Fay Doris Interview)
“Dr Vimy took a mercury test of the mercury vapor in my mouth, and at that
point it was the highest of anybody he’d tested. I had ten teeth with massive
mercury fillings in them, and uh, as he said at the time, if I was a building
I would have been condemned (laugh), the reading was so high!
“Fay Doris and her husband are patients of Dr. Vimy. She was crippled by
arthritis, suffered from fatigue, colitis, and memory loss. Her doctor told
her back in 1985 at the age of 35 that within 6 months she’d be confined to a
wheelchair. After reading about a connection between mercury and arthritis,
Dave Doris talked to Dr. Vimy about removing his wife’s fillings.
“And I said, go ahead and do it, what have we got to lose. The prognosis is
she’s going to be in a wheelchair by Christmas for the rest of her life,
which was scary for me.”
“I was mercury free by, I think by the 21st of August of that year, and 3,
within 3 weeks later I didn’t have to use a cane, and all my symptoms started
going away. I had more energy, my tremor stopped in my hands, I could do
things again it was just marvelous.
“And noticeably the swelling in the joints of her hands, uh, started to go
down, but the biggest thing was , it wasn’t painful on her feet to walk.
“And have, have, have any of those symptoms returned?”
“On the whole, I’d say 95% of it is gone away.”.
(Cut to Dr. Murray Vimy)
Vimy: “That’s clinical evidence. That’s not scientific evidence, but clinical
evidence is where science has to start. Science starts with observation.”
“The kind of evidence Dr. Vimy is talking about is what scientists call
anecdotal. Reports of recoveries that have not been monitored under strict
laboratory conditions. There are thousands of anecdotal stories, all over
Europe and the United States. This group in Illinois reported relief from
symptoms of manic depression, chronic fatigue, and migraine headaches; from
multiple sclerosis and anemia.”
(Cut to Nancy Yost interview)
“Last May, Nancy Yost, from San Jose, was told by her doctors that she had
multiple sclerosis. It was confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, an MRI
scan, incurable. She’d worked in the dental industry, and heard reports that
some patients showed improvement after having amalgam fillings removed.
“And I was cautioned by the doctors always: You’ve got your hopes too high,
get real here (laugh). If you are better its going to be a long period.”
“As a last resort, she had her 5 amalgam fillings taken out. She left the
dentist’s office using a cane and leaning heavily on the arm of a friend.”
“The next morning, when I presented to my physician, I threw my cane at him,
and said look!”
“It was that quick?”
“It was that quick.”
“What did your doctor say?”
“Well, he was incredulous. He knew it would be a benefit, but no one expected
it would be instantaneous! Or so dramatic. My voice came back, my ability to
walk and hold a pencil came back. It was there! That night, I ended up going
to dinner in San Francisco and actually dancing 2 dances. And I hadn’t been
walking since May (laugh)!
“Friday evening, the next day.”
“Are there any lingering effects?”
“Yes.....yes. There are lingering effects if I get overtired, or cold, or
under a great deal of stress.”
(Cut to Dr. Heber Simmons, ADA)
“The National Multiple Sclerosis Society states that this is a cruel hoax on
these people, to take the fillings out in hopes that its gonna cure the MS,
and it does not happen in those cases, it simply does not happen.
“I think it’s a rather strange position to take, because according to all the
doctors I talked to, they said Multiple Sclerosis has no....no known cause,
and there is no known cure. Well if we don’t know what causes it, why not
look at possibilities. Might it be.......mercury poisoning? They have no
“There’s no suggestion that all MS patients will recover if their fillings
are removed. But there are enough recoveries or partial recoveries to raise
questions. There are alternatives to amalgams. Composites like Dr. Vimy’s
placing in this patient’s mouth. Porcelain and gold. They’re all more
expensive than amalgam, and except for gold, not as durable. Amalgams are
also easier for dentists to use.
While the ADA publicly advocates the safety of amalgam, it cautions dentists
to use a no-touch technique when handling the material, and to store the
scrap, the leftovers that have not gone into a patient’s mouth, under liquid
in a tightly closed container.”
(Cut to Dr. Heber Simmons, ADA)
“If it’s so volatile, so dangerous in a dentist’s hands, how on earth can it
be safe in our mouths?”
“Morely, you’ve got to understand, uh, how amalgam really works. If it’s in a
free form, the mercury that is in amalgam is dangerous. But it, when it forms
with the copper, the tin, the zinc, and the silver that, that make up the
amalgam filling, it becomes a stable compound at that time. Once it is mixed
and placed in a patient’s mouth, it is a stable compound and it is not does
not constitute a risk.
“Once it hardens......”
“What do you do with your scrap amalgam?”
“What we do in our own practice, is we keep it in a jar, that has glycerine
in the jar, we pull the scrap in there put a top on it, so it is not exposed
in any way. It’s in an airtight jar all the time.”
“Why, given that......?”
“That is the recommended way of taking care of it in a dental office. That is
what’s been recommended by the scientists so that’s the way we do it.”
“But if its so perfectly safe in this combined state.......”
“But Morely, you’ve got to understand when we, uh, when we’re saving this
stuff, we, we’ve got a big jar of it. You’ve got to realize I’m in that
office 5 days a week, with this material. I do not want to go in there with
an open container like that. I want to be as safe as I can.
(Cut to Dr. Joel Berger interview)
“The ADA is adamant that mercury in a patient’s mouth is safe. So adamant
that in 1986 it changed its code of ethics. It became a violation of that
code for any dentist to recommend the removal of amalgam because of mercury.
Almost immediately Dr. Joel Berger, a visible and vocal anti-amalgam dentist,
was charged with fraud by the New York State dental authorities. The ADA
provided an expert witness to testify against him. His license was revoked.”
“I never told a patient that they would get healthier or better. I told them
that we could remove a known risk, a poison, a toxin, a carcinogen, from
their bodies if they eliminate the source of mercury from their mouths. It
was their risk decision to do it or not to do it.”
“Dr. Joel Berger should never have lost his, uh, dental license. He was a
very conservative dentist. You couldn’t even consider him a fringe dentist.”
“Dr. Vimy testified as a scientific expert for Joel Berger. He says the
change in the code of ethics has had a profound effect.”
“The effect has been that it’s really, in the United States, taken away the
constitutional rights of dentists and the rights of patients. They have, they
no longer have freedom of choice, and they no longer have freedom of
expression. A dentist can no longer say that he is against dental amalgam, so
it’s a fear tactic, it’s a witch hunt.
(Cut to Dr. Simmons, ADA)
“But I can tell you that we are not on a witch hunt. That I personally am
not. That’s a personal choice that the dentist has to make.”
“Why did you change the code of ethics regarding amalgams.”
“Because is has not been proven that taking amalgams out will help any of
these conditions. And there were people that were taking amalgams out, saying
that that was gonna help MS and other conditions. It has never been
scientfically proven that this will happen.
(Cut to Dr. Murray Vimy)
Safer: “What’s the position of the Canadian Dental Association?”
“Exactly the same. The Americans sneeze, the Canadians bring their Kleenex.
So they have changed their code of ethics too.”
(Cut to Dr. Simmons)
“How do you account for those people who have, whose health has improved
after the removal of amalgam fillings?”
“I would have to say that it was, it was anecdotal. I’m delighted that the
people are better.”
(Cut to Dr. Alfred Zamm interview)
“The word anecdote doesn’t mean it’s not true. It means it its an observed
clinical observation by a clinician, and that’s my job. I’m a clinician. And
I saw the patient got better, what am I supposed to do, report that he didn’t
“Dr. Alfred Zamm is an allergist and dermatologist in Kingston, New York.
He’s reported that hundreds of his patients have recovered from a variety of
diseases after having fillings removed. He’s in the process of filing those
cases with the Food and Drug Administration. One case, a 32 year old woman
who was crippled by arthritis.”
“And I had her seen by a board certified rheumatologist, whose really a good
physician, he really knows what he’s doing. And he said ‘there’s a limit to
what I can do’ and he gave her some anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin, and
“Dr. Zamm arranged for her fillings to be removed. Within a month, she was no
longer on crutches.”
“The rheumatologist was astounded. Not only was her arthritis better, but you
could see she looked like a different person. She was healthy. She no longer
(Cut to Dr. Simmons, ADA)
“Do you totally dismiss the anecdotal evidence?”
“No, I do not totally dismiss it. But I just say on the basis of the facts
that we have today, they’re insignificant. They’re clinically insignificant.”
“How could they know that? Do they examine the patient 3 or 6 months later?
How many dentists have done a rectal on you, just to be ridiculous. They
don’t know anything about you!”
“You’ve got to remember, we’re, we’re looking at, at, really a long time use.
You know there have only been 50 cases reported in the literature of amalgam
allergy, of true allergy to amalgam in the last 85 years.”
“That’s an obfuscating statement. They use the word allergic. It’s not
allergy, it’s poisoning of critical immune processes. If someone dies of
cancer, and you ask the specialist ‘why does he have cancer?’, he says ‘I
don’t know’. If someone dies of heart disease, ‘why did this one get heart
disease and the other one didn’t’, ‘I don’t know.” There’s a lot of things we
don’t know. But I do know that it’s not safe to put something in somebody’s
mouth that has a question.”
“Dr. Zamm has charted symptoms of diseases, patients who’ve had fillings
removed, and the results. He points to Joe Seveski as a prime example. For
years, he suffered with allergies to certain foods. Then 5 years ago, he
began getting serious infections. It went on for 4 years.
“I sent him to a board-certified internist who was a specialist in blood
disease who could find nothing. “
“Finally Dr. Zamm had Joe’s fillings removed. Within a month the infections
“His unexplained rashes of 20 years had disappeared. Now he can eat foods
that he couldn’t eat before. His immune system is working again.”
“Nothing wrong with his blood?”
“Board-certified specialist, could not find a thing.”
“No other change in his environment that could account for this?”
“Zero, no change whatsoever. We’re just arguing here, or discussing, whether
a poison is a poison. It’s a bizarre conversation , you know, when you think
about it. To try to justify if a poison is a poison.”
“If the mercury in amalgam fillings is as poisonous as you say it is, why
hasn’t the medical community jumped on it and banned it.?”
“Goodman and Gilman is the Bible of Pharmacology. When you go to medical
school, you use Goodman and Gilman.”
“According to Goodman and Gilman, there have been epidemics of mercury
poisoning that were misdiagnosed for years. The reason for the tragic delays,
says this textbook, include vagueness of early clinical signs and the medical
profession’s unfamiliarity with the disease.”
“It says clearly: ‘doctors very rarely make a diagnosis of mercury poisoning
because of the difficultness of it.’ It comes in different phases: one has
headaches, one has tiredness, one has this, one has that. It’s a very
difficult diagnosis to make, especially when it’s micro-mercurialism. Very
small amounts. That’s why you don’t have a lot of doctors jumping in. But
(Cut to Calgary Medical School operating rooms)
“The first full-scale investigation into the effects of amalgam on general
health is taking place in Calgary. Dr. Vimy and Dr. Fritz Lorscheider, the
Chief of Physiology at the medical school, and a team of other scientists
began with sheep. They found that mercury from the fillings travelled
throughout the body, and in pregnant sheep into the fetus.
The ADA says the Sheep Studies are seriously flawed. The World Health
Organization says the results are valid, and so do a number of scientific
journals. But the research that was most compelling was presented to the
American Physiological Society in Orlando last October. It showed that on
average, all six sheep used in the experiment lost half their kidney function
within 30 days of receiving fillings.
When they moved on to monkeys, a much closer relative of man, Vimy and
Lorscheider found the same concentrations of mercury had occured. They also
found that the mercury had a bacteriological effect on monkeys. It attacked
their immune system. The kidney and bacteriological studies are now being
reviewed by the scientific community.
In all the experiments, Dr. Vimy used the same amalgam used in dentist’s
offices. The amount was determined by the animal’s body weight. The
preliminary result of human experiments showed no radical differences between
humans and animals. Drs. Vimy and Lorscheider have joined a growing number of
dentists, doctors, and scientists calling for a total ban on amalgam. In this
country, a ban would have to be imposed by the Food and Drug Administration.
(Cut to outside shot of FDA offices in Washington)
So what about the FDA, what does it have to say about silver fillings? Well ,
it refuses to be interviewed. Suprising, given the widespread use of the
product, and the confidence that Americans, indeed most of the world has, in
both its caution and its expertise. The FDA did send us a brief statement,
that says: ‘The Canadian Sheep Study raises some preliminary questions about
the safety of dental amalgams, but leaves important questions unanswered. The
FDA remains confident in the value of amalgams in dental care.’ It says it
could ban them, but it won’t do that until it is satisfied there is a health
(Cut to Dr. Murray Vimy interview)
“Why has the FDA been so slow?”
“That’s interesting, because what you see when you look into the FDA, you see
that the FDA’s dental division has been platooned full of American Dental
Association people. The entire committee is made up of people from dental
institutions, practicing dentists, and people from the dental industry who
make the dental materials. There’s virtually no medical input, or basic
science input from medicine, on that committee. And so anything the ADA wants
they pretty much can get through the FDA. That’s what’s called effective
(Cut to Dr. Simmons)
“The dental trade industry, the American Dental Association, and the dentists
of this country; their primary interest is doing what is best for that
patient. And to making sure it is safe and effective and it does the job at
hand. You got to remember, Morely, I work with this material every single
day. I still place it in patients teeth. I’m a pediatric dentist in Jackson,
“Do you have any scientific evidence that it is safe?”
“Absolutely, there are numerous studies that have been done.”
(Cut to off-camera scientist)
“But the ADA’s top scientist, who was present at the interview, says the
effects of mercury vapor on health have not yet been well researched. There
is barely a scientist who would disagree.”
(Cut to Louise Hurbeck interview)
“Louise Hurbeck was disabled and in acute pain for 9 years. Her doctor had
diagnosed multiple sclerosis. She had her fillings removed after seeing a
report on amalgam on the CBS Evening News. Within 6 months, almost all her
symptoms were gone. Her doctor says the most likely explanation was
“I wasn’t just sitting here, when one day oh suddenly it was all gone. I did
something specific that made it happen. And that is by removing the mercury
from my teeth.”
“Louise has become an activist on the amalgam issue. She wants the law
“I think dentists should be made to tell the people what they’re putting in
our mouth. If you get a prescription drug now from a doctor, you have the
right to know what that drug is, and what its side-effects are.
“That right to know is called informed consent. But the ADA is fighting it,
urging state dental associations to fight any legislation to make dentists
explain the possible risks.”
(Cut to Dr. Simmons, ADA)
“If there’s no risk involved, why do you have to have informed consent? We do
not mind talking about it at all, we’re delighted to talk about it. We’re
“But don’t volunteer it, that’s what you’re telling your people.
“Oh, no I’m not volunteering it. I mean, I not saying that, I did not say
that at all. You put words in my mouth.
“You tell people about this controversy about amalgam?”
“If they ask, I will tell them (Safer laughs), I do not go out and volunteer.
Absolutely right, because in my opinion there is no risk involved with it.”
“What I don’t understand, though, is why you’re so tough on dentists who
might say: ‘You know, I’m not comfortable with this mercury stuff.’ You cut
him off at the knees if he even suggests it.”
“No we don’t. We just say that its not backed up by sound, scientific
“And you regard it as unethical behaviour.”
“So that’s called cutting him off at the knees.”
“No, not in my terminology it’s not. You may think it is, but its not. Morely,
I want to say.....”
“You spread the word that your local dentist is unethical, how many people
are going to go to him.”
“I can’t answer that question. I have no answer for that.”
“But you know the answer.”
“But I can say this, I look upon it as us trying to uphold the scientific
standards on which this profession is based.
(Cut to Dr. Murray Vimy interview)
“If you took amalgam off the market tomorrow, a good 40% of American Dentists
who belong to the American Dental Assocations would have to be retrained.
Because in their practices, the prime thing that they use is dental amalgam.
(Cut to Dr. Zamm interview)
“As consumers, Morely, we have to protect ourselves. We can’t wait until the
last I is dotted and the last T is crossed. The evidence is here. And we
should say, if it’s not reasonably safe, if there’s a question, I’m not going
to put it in my child’s mouth.
“So what are you saying to the rest of us? Go out and have your fillings
removed, is that what you’re saying?”
“(Smiles) Absolutely. Absolutely.”
(Cut to Safer’s closing comments)
“Not everyone involved in the call for a ban on amalgam feels Dr. Zamm’s
sense of urgency. Dentists who’ve stopped using amalgam suggest careful
consultation before having any fillings removed. Some of them, still members
of the American Dental Assocation, have filed a class-action suit against
their own organization, charging it has fraudulently misrepresented the
amalgam issue to its members. It’s been suggested that if the ADA did concede
there were risks, dentists might be sued by their patients.
The FDA will review the safety of amalgam fillings in March. Just last month
in Sweden, the government passed a law allowing its citizens to have amalgam
fillings removed under the national dental plan. And in Germany, legislation
to ban amalgam has been introduced. A total ban is expected within the year.
(c) 1990 CBS INC. All rights reserved
Author's Update. The United States Army Dental Investigation Service (DIS)
has declared amalgam to be Toxic Waste and all U.S. Army Dentists must
dispose of it as such.
This information is published on the DIS Website for
all to see at
Dentist Assistants Poisoned with Amalgam
A report about more then 10 000 dentist assistants and dentists in Norway
poisoned on their job, while working with Amalgam
Dentist Assistants Poisoned with Amalgam
Brennpunkt: Amalgam poisoning and dentist assistants
NRK May 10th 2005 Norway http://nrk.no/
This report was aired on May 10th 2005 at the prime time, on the most widely
available TV Chanell in Norway: NRK1
It will be again aired tomorrow.
After the report, evening news on NRK1 reported they received more then 1000
phone calls, thanking for the report, and many phonecalls from dentist
assistants confirming that they are suffereing from the same symptoms. It is
about time for the truth about amalgam to come out in the open! This is a report
about more then 10 000 dentist assistants and dentists in Norway poisoned on
their job, while working with Amalgam. About governmental organizations and
experts who failed to warn and protect dentists and their assistants about
dangers of amalgam and mercury. Health ministry has known about risks, but has
not warned enough.
Norwegian Labor Inspection Authority has not prioritized inspection and has not
estimated the risks. Researchers have prioritized but have assumed that doses
were too law. About doctors who refuse to diagnose mercury poisoning and are
rather giving "happiness pills" and pain killers and diagnoses like Parkinson's,
Transcript of the report that was aired on may 10th on Norwegian channel NRK
Reporter: "It was dentist assistants that were making Amalgam, all the way to
late nineties (90's) they worked under totally different standards of hygiene
then today. They were daily in contact with Mercury (Hg).
Reporter: Gerd Irene Lyse started working as dentist assistant 1971.
She was assisting dentist, receiving patients and she was making Amalgam.
Amalgam was made inside "Amalgamator", blending machine, and that machine had to
be filled before use.
Gerd Irene Lyse: To fill mercury into the Amalgamator without spilling some
drops was next to impossible.
Reporter: Does it mean that you were spilling mercury on the floor?
Irene Lyse: Yes
Reporter: Did you collect it?
Irene Lyse: Yes, we had a special technique to collect drops of mercury. We
would take rests of amalgam, and would collect mercury with amalgam as amalgam
acted like absorbent for mercury.
Reporter: Mercury is constantly evaporating and mixing with air cause that's how
mercury is. Gerd Irene Lyse worked for a dentist who was working with very soft
Amalgam. It means the Amalgam contained far more then 50% Mercury. It was very
easy to work with such soft Amalgam.
Irene Lyse: I gave him Amalgam, and he would take it with his hands, between his
fingers, he was using a tissue, he would turn the tissue until small drops of
mercury would appear at it's ends, and he would then shake it until drops of
mercury would fall down on the carpet.
Reporter: Yesterday, in Telemark, we met Tordis Klausen. She began working as a
dentist assistant 1969. And, like most of the other dentist assistants, she was
daily kneading mercury with her bare hands to keep it soft.
Tordis Klausen: I would take it over in my hands, and knead it until it became a
homogenous mass. There we were standing and kneading it. Then, we were holding
it in our hands, and after a while when dentist would place amalgam into the
patient's teeth, we would place it on a little spaltel.
Reporter: Did you wear glows while you were doing it?
Tordis Klausen: No, not 1969.
Reporter: Was is written that it could be dangerous?
Tordis Klausen: No.
Reporter: Did you get any information that it could be dangerous?
Tordis Klausen: No.
Reporter: This is the machine used for mixing Amalgam. Inside these 2 holes
assistant would fill at least 50% Mercury, and rest alloy. Machine would mix
materials until dentist assistant would take it with hands and knead it. Tordis
Klausen too had problems filling machine without spilling drops of mercury.
Tordis Klausen: Everybody knows that some drops would be spilled. That is why we
would add more mercury, and then some of it would spill down on the floor, and
it would break into very many small drops over the whole floor.
Reporter: Did you collect it?
Tordis Klausen: We would never have time to do it.
Reporter: There are limits on how much mercury can be in the air, but those
limits differ extremely.
Air limit for one 8 hours working day in Norway is today 50µg Hg per cubic meter
(m3) of air. (µg = micro gram = 1/1,000,000 gram = one millionth part of a
WHO (World Health Organization) has at the moment much lower limit: it is 20 µg
One survey of 15 dentist offices performed by Norwegian Labour Inspection
Authority 1973 shows average value to be 28µg Hg/m3 of air, but 3 offices have
much higher values. One was kept outside this report with value that was 400
µg/m3 of air. This report confirms Tordis Klausen's and Irene Lyse's story.
They were spilling mercury in offices, there was no appropriate ventilation, and
mercury was handled with bare hands. No expert the Brennpunk was in contact with
would have done that today! Especially not here, at the " Statens
Arbeidsmiljøinstitutt (STAMI)" (State Labor Environment Institute) where all
most reputable Norwegian experts in this field are.
STAMI Expert: I believe that it is important to look at it in the context of the
time they were doing it … but today … such situation would not be acceptable.
That time we thought that mercury is far less poisonous then what later was
Reporter: But, it was actually much worst. After the Second World War,
Scandinavia had a huge tooth-hole problem. Dental Caries was destroying the
teeth of adults and children. Such teeth were not unusual. [Showing very poor
teeth.] Something had to be done and the weapon was Copper-Amalgam. It was
composed of 70% Mercury, and was ideal for use on milk teeth in kids. Copper was
killing bacteria, and it was possible to place filling without that tooth had to
be dry or clean.
But, Copper-Amalgam had one huge disadvantage: It had to be cooked first.
Tordis Klausen: It was in very small tablets, and we had to heat it over the
open flame until pearls of mercury appear on the outside. Then, we would take it
into another container, and it was crushed and mixed there, then we would take
it into our hands, and would be standing and kneading it.
Reporter:That is what Tordis Klausen has done every half an hour, every day for
many years… but at the end of seventies, she got sick. After a long time of
being sick, she got Disability Pension.
Gard Irene Lyse was also working with Copper-Amalgam. She was doing it from 1971
until the end of eighties. She went to a high school to become Dentist
Assistant, and Copper-Amalgam was a part of curriculum. But, they never told her
that it could be dangerous.
Gerd Irene Lyse : No, it was never said anything about the danger. If I knew, I
would have never done it.
Reporter: You have been lectured on this method (heating Copper-Amalgam tablets)
Gerd Irene Lyse : Yes, it was very common. It was used daily, and that was what
we were working most with.
After a while, when Gerd Irene Lyse and urdis Klausen become sick, they got one
message from doctors, researcher, social system and justice system: "Your health
problems are not caused by mercury cause doses that you were exposed to were too
Arbeidstilsynet / Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority had responsibility to
insure that working place is safe. They should have inspected dentist offices,
but they did not discover that something was wrong.
Arbeidstilsynet Expert: As I said, we have done research 1973 and concluded that
level of exposure was acceptable though possibly with few exceptions.
Reporter: Have you had any idea that something could have been wrong?
Arbeidstilsynet Expert: That time, as I said, we did not focus on that.
But, Tordis Klausen was sick at the end of seventies (70's).
After several years with mercury fumes, symptoms appeared crouching one after
Tordis Klausen : When dentist asked me to do most usual things, things I have
done for many years, suddenly, I stopped: "What is that?" I needed several
minutes to come to myself, and to remember what is it he is asking me to do.
Loss of memory was getting worse, and in the end it was so extreme that I
totally lost sense for orientation.
Reporter: But, after a while ... it was more. Much More! Tordis Klausen
developed next problems: (on the screen, problems are listed: ) neurological
problems, inability to concentrate, shaking, loss of memory and loss of
orientation, pain, respiratory problems, cramps, …
Tordis Klausen : One day, I was getting so strong cramps all over my body. I was
sitting inside bath, and cramps were strong and I totally lost concentration.
Reporter: Also Gerd Irene Lyse got sick while she was working. And, same like
with Tordis Klausen, symptoms were appearing gradually.
Gerd Irene Lyse : I was loosing my memory, there were things I new, but I was
totally blocked, … There was a doctor that said I was not sick. …. I got
diagnosed with Parkinson's December 2000, just before Christmas.
Reporter: Do you think your problems are caused by mercury?
Gerd Irene Lyse: I am totally convinced.
Reporter: But, the problem was, nobody else believed that it was mercury.
Through many years, answer from doctors was a prescription for "happiness pill"
Others that Brennpunkt contacted gave her directions to Hypochondriac Clinic.
Symptoms of mercury poisoning are extremely similar to psychological ailments.
And, women that need help are in their fifties and sixties.
In Stockholm we met Maths Berlin . He is the professor of Environmental Medicine
at the Medical Faculty of Lund. He specializes in Mercury toxicity, and was one
of the people who were working on the Mercury Exposure Limits suggested by WHO.
Maths Berlin confirms that it is difficult to come up with clear diagnosis.
Maths Berlin: Doctors have very little knowledge about the risk of Mercury
Poisoning. They have never learned about it and they never diagnose it. Maths
Berlin believes that up to 500,000 Swedish citizens have problems caused by
Reporter: Berlin knows very well about dentist assistants. He said that they
have been working daily and breathing too much mercury. His opinion is that even
exposure limits sat today are too high.
Maths Berlin: Zero exposition to mercury is best. All biological organisms are
affected by mercury.
Reporter is now in USA:
Washington, Seattle: Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation
More Info: Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hg
Reporter: Seattle , here we can find some of the world leading experts on
mercury poisoning research. Nobody knows more about Dentists and Dentist
assistants then the researchers here. They are connected to Battelle, a research
organization with departments in many countries.
In USA they are doing a lot of work for the US Government.
Battelle Expert : Today, we are going to run through a battery of behavioral
tests, so, what I'm gonna do is start the test right here …
Reporter: At Battelle, mercury researchers have examined over 6000 dentists and
Battelle Expert (to persons being tested): Welcome to the Battelle. Today you
will be taking a series of tests that evaluate your memory, coordination,
response time, visual analysis and concentration.
Reporter: These are the tests that can show if someone is suffering neurological
damage seen in people ho have been exposed to toxic amounts of mercury. Right
here, they are testing memory: you have to remember yellow boxes and the order
by what they were arranged on the coputer screen. You have to arrange them as
fast as you can. Dental office personnel who has been examined here, has been
exposed to a very low levels of mercury, 10 times lower then what was normal
exposure of dental health workers in Norway up to seventies.
And, even at such small doses, they were able to detect the damages.
Diana Echeverria (Battelle Expert, Author of the behavioral study, is
demonstrating different way how people are tested ): A person's capacity to move
their finger from here to here as fast as possible, reaction time is slowed
down. A person's capacity to hold something steadily, very firmly in their
fingers, and not jiggle, and not move this way or this way … is impaired when
someone has a fair amount of exposure to mercury. A person's ability to recall
numbers is worse, so their attention is lower. We see increased symptomology
mostly in complaints of memory loss, concentration and anxiety. We see some mood
problems and some depression.
Reporter (explaining the test): This is one test for shaking. Every time the pin
touches the edge of the circle, it gets registered. Dentist assistants in
Diana Echeverria's survey are able to work, but doses of mercury they were
exposed to were very low.
At higher does, symptoms will increase.
Urine test taken while you are working can tell how much mercury is inside of
you. In examination done here in USA , dentist assistants had 4µg of mercury in
urine. Tordis Klausen has never got a chance to take urine test while she was
working. But, one of her friends, dentist assistant, was tested and she has had
60 µg of mercury in urine. Tordis Klausen has applied for Work Related Injury
Compensation but has not got it. Many years of court battle, a lot of research,
and 2 million Norwegian Crowns ($ 320,000) out of the pocket, she spent to run
the case to the top of the Norwegian Justice System, but she lost on all
instances. As late as 1999, researchers from " Statens Arbeidsmiljøinstitutt (STAMI)"
(State Labor Environment Institute) were testifying as expert witnesses in court
and claiming that mercury exposure levels were too low to cause health problems.
STAMI Expert: I can't comment on this case as we are here going into individual
cases and I don't wish to comment on it. That being said, I want to make clear
that STAMI has many highly qualified people who testified in many court cases.
But, in court, they represent competence and they represent only themselves,
they don't represent the official STAMI view on the subject.
Reporter: This is Nils Roar Gjerdet , Professor of Odontology at the University
of Bergen. Inside of his storage, we find Copper-Amalgam. We will now try to
find out how much mercury is released when we do exactly what dentist assistants
were doing several times a day.
The difference is: We have glows, and protective clothes. To measure, we have
with us a labor hygiene professional. Remember that allowed dose in Norway is
50µg Hg per cubic meter of air (over 8 hours working day).
Nils Roar Gjerdet (while worming up 2 Copper-Amalgam tablets inside small
container over the open flame): Now, drops of mercury are visible at the surface
of tablets, so now we take them into other container and we crush them and mix
Labor hygiene professional is measuring the level of mercury in the air, she is
holding instrument as far from heated tablest as the head of Nils Ove Gjerde is.
Labor hygiene professional: Now, we are over the limit of this measuring device
that is over 1000 µg Hg per cubic meter of air.
Nils Roar Gjerdet : So, it is happening while we are mixing amalgam.
Labor hygiene professional: Yes.
Reporter: Every time we were measuring, the instrument was showing "HL", High
Level… that means over 1000 µg Hg per cubic meter of air. How much over, we
don't know … we don't have the instrument that can measure it.
Nils Roar Gjerdet : If this is happening repeatedly over a longer time, then it
is of serious concern. The danger of getting exposed to extremely high levels of
mercury is very, very high.
Reporter: Some of those dentist assistants we contacted said that they have been
done it every half an hour, every day, Monday to Saturday, over many years. What
do you think about that?
Nils Roar Gjerdet : Then, I believe that they have been exposed to extremely
high mercury doses during the working day.
Diana Echeverria(USA): That is very high, especially in an uncontrolled
environment, without any ventilation, or without being in a hood, or without
heaving special controls. Yea, that's extremely high.
Reporter: Arbeidstilsynet (Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority) have
responsibility to inspect working place. Last 3 weeks they have gone through
everything they have of documents and it is clear now that there was no any
Arbeidstilsynet Expert: As far as I have seen, there have never been any
systematic control done. We had very few stick controls.
Reporter: That was the only form for control, because experts agreed that the
work inside dentist office was not dangerous. And experts were the same, year
Arbeidstilsynet Expert: If we go back to 60s, 70s, 80's , then we were still
using as the bases of our opinion the same report provided by STAMI.
Reporter: And these were the expert consultants to Arbeidstilsynet (Norwegian
Labour Inspection Authority).
Researchers at STAMI have previously claimed that doses are too low.
But now, they are changing their opinion.
STAMI expert: It is a very high dose. When we are talking about 1 milligram,
then we are beginning to talk about a lot of mercury. We actually have some
experience with similar doses. That is the level of mercury that was inside
mercury mines where miners were poisoned almost without exception.
Reporter: Amalgam was used as tooth filling material of choice in over 150
years. And, all of that time, there were warnings. Also about Copper-Amalgam.
Already 1936 Karl Schmidt Fieseldeck at the University of Århus was warning
against mercury: It was dangerous for dental personnel.
The warning was repeated 1957 at the dentist school in Stockholm. Copper Amalgam
was classified as high risk material.
Last warning came from Nils Roar Gjerdet and his colleagues from the University
of Bergen 1981.
Nils Roar Gjerdet : Our focus, 1981, at the beginning, was not working
environment, but it was the alarming amount of mercury that was leaking from the
amalgam fillings, so we decided to warn health authorities at the time, and they
Reporter: But, reaction from health minister was much nicer formulated then what
the experts suggested. Copper-amalgam was not forbidden, instead, it has been
said that it should be used with extreme caution.
The letter (1981) was supposedly sent to all dentist offices, but no one we have
spoken with remembers that letter?!?
Tordis Klausen: No, I have never seen that letter.
Reporter: So, you have never seen this letter circulating?
Tordis Klausen: No, I so it first time in the hands of one of the people working
in Arbeidstilsinet, early nineties.
Gerd Irene Lyse: We have not known anything about that. We know now, but if I
have known about it before, I would have never worked with Copper-Amalgam.
Reporter: Gerd Irene Lyse began to work seriously with Copper-Amalgam 1981, the
same year the warning from health minister went out about Copper-Amalgam. And,
she was working with it until late 80's. Some palaces Copper-Amalgam was used
STAMI experts are surprised about this.
STAMI expert: Warming-up mercury has never been considered very smart or safe
practice. So, I am very surprised that it was practiced as late as you say.
Reporter: As Inspection Authority ,when you saw that people are warming-up the
mercury, should have not you done something about that?
Arbeidstilsynet representative: Of course, but as I said, we have never seen it
like that, we heard about it, but I don't think I can comment more about this,
but it is possible that our procedures were not good enough that time.
Reporter: Tordis Klausen was fighting hopeless battle for herself and her peers.
Health ministry has known about risks, but has not warned enough.
Arbeidstilsynet have not prioritized inspection and have not estimated the
risks. Researchers have prioritized but have assumed that doses were too law.
Justice system have chosen not to believe to Tordis Klausen.
Very few were ever able to pass by the Doctors, General Practitioners who were
convinced that they are mentally sick.
But, there is somebody who believes them.
Diana Echeverria (USA): I would be willing to state on record that those people
should be evaluated, absolutely.
Reporter: Is it possible to say that those doses are definitively too low, that
they could have not been affected?
Diana Echeverria (USA): NO! No!.
Also Maths Berlin in Stocholm means that there is absolutely no doubt that some
of the dental personnel was exposed to the extremely high doses of mercury.
Maths Berlin: Without protection, without ventilation, no doubt some of them
were exposed to too high doses. On the long run, it will cause health problems.
Section for Labor Medicine at the University of Bergen has examined dentist
assistants after the request from Brennpunkt, NRK1.
All of them were working during the same time span: 1960 – 1990.
25% of them reports that they often or very often have neurological problems.
They have been compared with a group of Nurses of same age.
Dentist assistants score sky high over Nurses on 4 points: (On the screen,
graphs are shown, showing that Dentist assistants had from 2 to 10 times more
symptoms when compared with nurses. )
Tremor / shaking
Heart and lung problems.
Lack of memory / memory failure
Reporter: Extremely conservative estimation would be that 10,000 women were
working as dentist assistants in Norway during the time span: 1960 – 1990
Not all of them were working under equally bad circumstances and some of them
tolerate mercury better then the others. But there is a little doubt that many
have inhaled too much toxic fumes.
STAMI has concluded the same in an interview with us.
But, there is now a new problem.
The lack of data and the lack of urine tests is why STAMI states: it is
impossible for them to find out more about what has happened.
STAMI expert: The biggest part of the problem is that we have very bad
documentation on the individual level: how much and how high exposure was on
every single person, and that makes research difficult or impossible.
Reporter : But, others do not agree with STAMI.
Maths Berlin states that it is possible to do brain MRI examination of dental
assistants. MRI will be sufficient enough to chart damages and injuries.
In USA, Diana Echeverria relieve that it is possible to do the research the way
she has done it: with the help of survey forms and neurological tests.
Researchers of the In the University of Bergen states that results of the
research that they have done is so alarming that they are ready to go further
with it. But, in that case, someone must come with money.
If that doesn't happen, then the answer will not come before dentist assistants
are dead. Under autopsy, mercury is found in brain.
Today, there are strict restrictions on the use of mercury and Environment
Protection Minister is considering total ban on use of Mercury because it is so
Nobody said that to Tordis Klausen. She didn't know that job she is doing every
day can lead to poisoning. She found that out alone. Today, she is angry with
everyone who should have known.
Tordis Klausen : Norwegian Health Ministry, Social Health Department, Communal
and Labor Department, STAMI, Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority, they are
responsible! They have had responsibility to inform us, and to give us knowledge
how to protect us.
No one of those women have received Work Related Injury Compensation.
Last years, Gerd Irene Lyse has gone from doctor to doctor, trying to find one
that wants to listen to her.
Reporter: Irene Lyse, you re 50 years old, and you are on Disability Pension.
Irene Lyse: Yes, unfortunately, I am unable to work.
Reporter: 2 days after this interview, I went with Irene Lyse to a new doctor
with hope that he will listen to her. Doctor offered one new pain killer. Later,
we found out is an anti-depressant.
This report will be aired again on Thursday, May 12, at 10:30. If you need to
talk with someone, you can call +47 55 27 57 96
No To Mercury In Vaccines – Washington Becomes 7th State to Ban It
By Kathie Durbin, Columbian
For Mary Ann Newell, Monday brought a sweet reward. The tireless
anti-mercury activist from Vancouver traveled to Olympia at the invitation of
Gov. Chris Gregoire to witness the signing of a bill
that will bar vaccines containing more than trace amounts of mercury for
pregnant women and children younger than 3. On July 1, 2007, when the bill takes
effect, Washington will join at least six other states that have similar laws on
the books. "It's amazing that a few people really can make a difference," said
Newell, a regular in Olympia during the past two sessions as the measure worked
its way through the Legislature. "I'm so proud we have done this. But it's just
Also attending Monday's bill-signing were Garry and Maria Lund of
Vancouver and their 7-year-old son, Kyle. Garry Lund, a design engineer at
Hewlett-Packard Co. in Vancouver, said his son developed a severe form of autism
after receiving vaccines containing thimerosal, a preservative that
contains about 50 percent organic mercury. Kyle underwent treatment to remove
mercury from his system and now exhibits only mild symptoms of autism, Lund
Though science hasn't established a conclusive link between thimerosal and
autism, parents such as Lund are convinced it exists. He told Kyle's story to a
Senate committee last year when he testified against injecting small children
with mercury. "I just want to thank (Gregoire) for protecting our children,"
Lund said Monday. "That's what it comes down to. If we're going to do
vaccinations, I want them to be safe."
It's been 10 years since Newell went public with her own mercury horror
story. In the mid-1990s, she began experiencing mysterious and painful symptoms:
Her teeth and tongue hurt, the right side of her face hurt, her taste was
impaired and she had too much saliva. The dentists and medical specialists she
visited refused to take her symptoms seriously. At last she found a dentist who
helped her solve the mystery of her aching mouth: her gold crowns were coming
into contact with the mercury in her fillings and producing a galvanic reaction
that felt like an electrical current.
"I felt like I was being electrocuted," she recalled. Tests of her hair,
blood and urine confirmed mercury poisoning. She spent $7,700 having 11 of her
mercury-laden amalgam fillings removed and replaced with a nonmercury composite.
"The morning after the fillings were removed, my tongue didn't hurt, I could
sleep on the side of my face and my excess saliva went away," she recalled.
Newell later underwent chelation therapy to remove mercury from her body.
Sometime during her ordeal, her sister gave her an article from Mothering
Magazine entitled "A Mouth Full of Mercury." She began reading up on amalgam
fillings, which contain 50 percent mercury. A growing number of consumers refuse
to let dentists put amalgam fillings in their teeth because they fear mercury
will leach into their bodies. The American Dental Association says amalgam
fillings are safe.
In 1998, while researching the health hazards of mercury, Newell learned
that many of the vaccines given to small children contained the preservative
thimerosal, which is half mercury. As she studied the issue further, she found
out that the number of thimerosal-containing vaccines given to children had
increased dramatically in the 1980s and 1990s. In the late 1990s, doctors and
educators began recording a startling increase in the number of young children
diagnosed with autism. She was outraged. Her husband said, "Quit singing to the
choir." So she did.
Newell joined forces with the Mercury Awareness Team, led by Ann Clifton
of Olympia and Christy Diemond of Woodinville, which was lobbying for a bill to
get mercury out of childhood vaccines. She wrote letters to newspapers (37 to
The Columbian alone since 1996), buttonholed lawmakers,even persuaded her
Republican precinct caucus to support a resolutioncalling for an
informed-consent law on mercury fillings.
+ Read more: http://www.columbian.com/news/localNews/03282006news16366.cfm
The mercury concentration in breast milk resulting from amalgam fillings and
dietary habits. Drexler H, Schaller KH. Environ Res. 1998 May;77(2):124-9.
9600805 PubMed. The concentration of mercury in the breast milk collected
immediately after birth showed a significant association with the number of
amalgam fillings as well as with the frequency of meals. Urine mercury
concentrations correlated with the number of amalgam fillings and amalgam
Placental transfer of mercury in pregnant rats which received dental amalgam
restorations. Takahashi Y, Tsuruta S, Arimoto M, Tanaka H, Yoshida M.
Toxicology. 2003 Mar 14; 185(1-2):23-33. 12505442 PubMed. The results of the
present study demonstrated that mercury vapor released from the amalgam fillings
in pregnant rats was distributed to maternal and fetal organs in dose-dependent
amounts of the amalgam fillings.
Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Drasch G, Schupp I, Hofl H,
Reinke R, Roider G. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Aug; 153(8):607-10. 7957411 PubMed. The
toxicological relevance of the unexpected high Hg-K of older infants from
mothers with higher numbers of dental amalgam fillings is discussed. CONCLUSION:
Future discussion on the pros and cons of dental amalgam should not be limited
to adults or children with their own amalgam fillings, but also include fetal
exposure. The unrestricted application of amalgam for dental restorations in
women before and during the child-bearing age should be reconsidered.
Mercury in human colostrum and early breast milk. Its dependence on dental
amalgam and other factors. Drasch G, Aigner S, Roider G, Staiger F, Lipowsky G.
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1998 Mar; 12(1):23-7. 9638609 PubMed. The Hg-M in the
breast milk samples correlates positively with the number of maternal teeth with
dental amalgam. The mean Hg-M of amalgam-free mothers was < 0.2 microgram/L,
while milk from mothers with 1-4 amalgam fillings contained 0.57 microgram/L,
with 5-7 fillings 0.50 microgram/L and with more than 7 fillings 2.11
Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam
fillings. Vimy MJ, Takahashi Y, Lorscheider FL. Am J Physiol. 1990 Apr;
258(4 Pt 2):R939-45. 2331037 PubMed. In humans, the continuous release of Hg
vapor from dental amalgam tooth restorations is markedly increased for prolonged
periods after chewing. The present study establishes a time-course distribution
for amalgam Hg in body tissues of adult and fetal sheep. Under general
anesthesia, five pregnant ewes had twelve occlusal amalgam fillings containing
radioactive 203Hg placed in teeth at 112 days gestation. Blood, amniotic fluid,
feces, and urine specimens were collected at 1- to 3-day intervals for 16 days.
From days 16-140 after amalgam placement (16-41 days for fetal lambs), tissue
specimens were analyzed for radioactivity, and total Hg concentrations were
calculated. Results demonstrate that Hg from dental amalgam will appear in
maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid within 2 days after placement of
amalgam tooth restorations. Excretion of some of this Hg will also commence
within 2 days. All tissues examined displayed Hg accumulation. Highest
concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in kidney and liver,
whereas in the fetus the highest amalgam Hg concentrations appeared in liver and
pituitary gland. The placenta progressively concentrated Hg as gestation
advanced to term, and milk concentration of amalgam Hg postpartum provides a
potential source of Hg exposure to the newborn. It is concluded that
accumulation of amalgam Hg progresses in maternal and fetal tissues to a steady
state with advancing gestation and is maintained. Dental amalgam usage as a
tooth restorative material in pregnant women and children should be
By Boyd Haley, Ph.D. Professor of Chemistry at the
University of Kentucky
Anyone who cares about the health of our children would be wise to consider
the flaws in the two recent JAMA papers about studies that were conducted in
Portugal and New England and that compared youngsters with dental mercury
fillings with those who were amalgam free . In designing their
studies, the authors of these two papers evidently ignored recent research
findings about mercury toxicity, particularly the results strongly
suggesting that the level of mercury in blood, urine or feces may be
influenced more by the child’s ability to excrete mercury than by his or her
total mercury exposure.
The view that mercury toxicity can be traced to the child’s inability to
excrete the metal comes from a wide range of studies, including research on
autistic children. These children are one of the subsets of the
population that do not effectively excrete mercury. Scientists have shown
that in comparison to non-autistic children, autistic children have less
mercury in their blood, urine or feces but have much more in their body
organs. Also, the aberrant porphyrin profiles of autistic children indicate
that their ineffective mercury excretion is the result of an early exposure
to this metal. The almost normal porphyrin profiles that are produced in
children who have undergone mercury chelation treatments supports the view
that mercury toxicity is based on a child’s inability to excrete mercury,
not on his or her total mercury exposure.
Why is the profile data relevant? Consider these facts: the inhibition of
the porphyrin synthesis pathway curtails the production of the final
product, heme, which binds and carries oxygen in the hemoglobin of blood
Heme is also a necessary component of the P-450 enzymes that are critical
for detoxifying the body of pesticides, herbicides and other organic toxins.
In our body’s cells. heme is also critical for the electron transport system
of mitochondria, the source of most of the body’s energy (ATP).
A report in the February issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences established that heme is needed to flush beta-amyloid from the
brain, and if insufficient heme is present, the beta-amyloid forms “large
toxic clumps” called amyloid plaques, a major diagnostic hallmark of
Alzheimer’s disease. While many regard the amyloid plaques as the root of
Alzheimer’s disease, several recent studies suggest that the primary cause
is toxins such as mercury because they prevent the body’s normal removal, or
excretion, of the amyloid protein.
Therefore, mercury inhibition of the heme producing porphyrin pathway could
have major effects secondary to the primary site of mercury inhibition.
Previous scientific papers by other investigators have reported that, when
exposed to dental amalgam, the subset of the adult population with the
genetic polymorphism (CPOX4) is at risk for developing aberrant porphyrin
excretion profiles that significantly modify the effect of mercury exposure
on urinary porphyrin excretion . Because some of the CPOX4 adults were
more affected than others, it is likely that a smaller subset with an even
stronger genetic susceptibility to mercury toxicity also exists. The authors
of the two JAMA papers should have acknowledged these findings, and, of
course, they should have included the porphyrin profile data on the children
rather than dismissing this information with only brief comments. Those of
us who are aware of the previous scientific papers on the impact of the
CPOX4 genetic polymorphism on an adult’s porphyrin profile have a hard time
understanding why children – such as those in the two studies reported in
JAMA –would not have been similarly at risk for the CPOX4 effect and thus
tested to identify those with the polymorphism.
Below are my more ‘other’ comments about the two JAMA studies. The end of
this summary provides information about the research publications relevant
to my comments.
1. In the first line of the Portugal based study entitled, “Neurobehavioral
Effects of Dental Amalgam in Children,” Dr. Timothy A. DeRouen, et al.,
wrote that dental amalgam “emits small amounts of mercury vapor". This is
not a scientific or quantitative statement, because what is a “small” amount
of mercury? Reporting the exposure level of a toxin in any study is
absolutely needed. It is a dereliction of duty to place a toxic material
into any patient, but especially a child, and particularly if the level of
toxic exposure is not defined or known. That the authors totally ignored the
exposure level invalidated their conclusion that the measurements of the
urine mercury levels demonstrated the safety of the mercury fillings.
The authors also did not report the level of mercury vapor to which the
children in the studies were exposed daily. This is an irresponsible
omission considering the fact that the material implanted in the children’s
teeth was 50% mercury, and previous studies have indicated that such
fillings emit mercury vapors. However, the authors’ omission is not
surprising since both the ADA and the FDA have steadfastly refused to
conduct and publish the results of well-designed experiments on the impact
of mercury vapor on human health. Have they stonewalled these experiments
because they suspect that the level of mercury vapor emission from amalgams
is too high to be accepted as safe? (Now it appears that the IRB boards of
several prestigious medical schools are following ADA and FDA’s lead.)
2. Since previous research has well documented that the amount of mercury in
urine does not reflect a child’s or adult’s exposure under many conditions,
it is baffling that the authors of the JAMA papers used urine, not fecal,
samples to measure the children’s mercury exposure. It has been published
and verified that over 90% of mercury that is excreted by humans is through
the bilary transport system of the liver and that mercury is found in the
feces, not the urine. One study reported that mercury in fecal materials was
13 times higher than the levels of the metal in the urine of the same
patients . Also, most mercury excreted in the urine is bound to
cysteine or other soluble, small molecule containing compounds. Therefore,
the urine mercury excretion levels depend as much on the blood levels of
cysteine or other small sulfur compounds as they do on mercury exposure. In
addition, cysteine levels are influenced by diet. The bottom line is that
these studies looked for mercury in all the wrong places. The take-home
message from these JAMA papers is that if a researcher doesn’t want to find
data indicating excess exposure to mercury, he or she should look where the
metal isn’t -- in the urine.
3. Since the IRB of several prestigious universities approved this research
even though it exposed children to an unknown daily level of mercury vapor,
the public should be outraged and should demand that these institutions
perform experiments on the same brand of amalgams, made outside of the
mouth, of known weight and surface area and determine the amount of mercury
that these amalgams released per day (with and without abrasion to mimic the
daily effects of chewing). If these experiments were ever conducted, the
public and the scientific community would have the data that the two studies
described in JAMA failed to provide: determinations of the daily exposure of
the children to mercury from these amalgams and the fraction of the amount
excreted in the urine that did not account for the bulk of the mercury.
Research in my laboratory and studies by other scientists have demonstrated
that the emissions of mercury vapors were much higher than the “estimates”
made by pro-amalgam individuals. Chew et al. showed that a study of
long-term dissolution of mercury from a non-mercury releasing amalgam
totaled 43.5 microgram/cm2/day Hg and this measure remained constant for 2
years. It should be noted that different amalgam preparations release
mercury at vastly different levels, and the modern high copper amalgams have
been shown to release much higher levels than other older type amalgams.
4. In Figure 2 on page 1788 , the authors of the two JAMA papers
reported data that are quite damning of their conclusion that amalgams are
safe to place in children. On the figure, the authors plotted the urine
mercury levels at each year of the study. As expected, years 1 and 2 showed
a steady increase in mercury exposure in the amalgam bearers when compared
to the amalgam free children. Yet, during years 3 to 7, the level of mercury
in the urine of the children with amalgam continuously dropped, approaching
the levels of the amalgam free children. The authors implied, but failed to
explain their reasoning, that restorative treatment in years 6, 7 and 8
would have increased, or at least maintained, the urine mercury levels. (The
average life span of an amalgam before replacement is less than 10 years.)
In the Chew study mentioned above, the amount of mercury released was steady
for the study’s two-year period.
Readers of the two JAMA papers also should consider the fact that 1 gram of
filling contains 500,000 micrograms of mercury -- which over 100,000 days
should emit a toxic 5 micrograms per day. That is, before all of the
mercury has been emitted, about 275 years have passed! Therefore, since
amalgams do not stop releasing mercury vapor within 7 years, do you not
wonder what caused the urinary excretion to drop after year 2? Urine mercury
levels are, in my opinion, a measure of the amount of mercury being excreted
by this route. After two years of exposure, the kidney route of mercury
excretion appears to become less effective -- a development consistent with
the well-known fact that increased mercury exposure inhibits its own
excretion. However, the drop in urinary mercury could also be due to the
fact that the mercury filled teeth were extracted during the course of the
study, but that would invalidate the entire basis of these studies.
The mercury levels that have been measured in the body tissues of young
athletes, nuns and other groups indicate that this toxic metal can be
detected long after the dental mercury fillings have been installed. For
example, in the heart tissue of young people who died from idiopathic
dilated cardiomyopathy while under physical stress in athletic events,
scientists have found 178,400 ng/g mercury -- 22,000 times more than the
quantities measured in the heart and muscle tissue of individuals with other
forms of cardiac disease. For another example, consider the study
published in the Journal of the American Dental Association regarding
amalgams and Alzheimer’s disease. That paper, amazingly, reported no
correlations between amalgams and brain mercury levels. Yet, in about 15% of
the nuns in this study, brain mercury levels were in the micromolar range --
a very toxic level of mercury since much less (even 1,000 fold less) of
mercury can kill neurons in culture. Again, even if everyone lived in the
same location and ate the same food, certain individuals would appear to
have less ability to excrete mercury when compared to their family members
and neighbors, The reason: mercury collects in certain tissues at levels
much higher than have ever been found in blood, urine or hair, and it is
primarily the retention of mercury (or the inability to excrete mercury)
that boosts its toxicity from continuous, low level exposures.
Thus, the data in Figure 2 strongly indicates that after two years exposure
to dental amalgam mercury, the children seem to lose their ability to
excrete mercury through their urine pathway. Have they also lost the ability
to excrete mercury through the fecal pathway, the major way that the body
eliminates the metal? If the authors of the papers had answered this
question, would they still have concluded that there was no health reason
for discontinuing placing amalgams in children?
By revealing that children with amalgam may slowly lose their ability to
excrete mercury after about two years of amalgam exposure, the studies
reported in JAMA do add to the body of scientific knowledge about mercury
toxicity. However, these experiments should have been conducted on nonhuman
primates, not children. That children were “used” presents a question of
ethics in medicine.
5. Except to state that there was no indication of kidney damage, the
authors of the JAMA papers provide minimal information about porphyrin’s
effects in the amalgam bearers. A more important question concerns the
children’s ability to make heme: were their porphyrin profiles as aberrant
as those that have characterized adults exposed to amalgams or autistic
children? One has to question why this data was not included and discussed
in detail by the authors.
6. Several scientific papers have revealed that mercury is a potent immune
system suppressor. Testing the immune response is an easy procedure to
perform. Since the authors of the JAMA papers failed to conduct these tests,
readers did not learn whether the children’s immune system showed the
abnormalities, such as the inability of macrophage phagocytosis of microbes
at very low levels, that were determined by previous research on mercury
exposure. That the authors checked mercury’s effects on IQ but not the
immune system, is questionable science since the study’s purpose was to
determine whether mercury from amalgams is “safe” for use in children.
7. The research reported in JAMA excluded those children most susceptible to
mercury toxicity -- a major failing of the studies’ design.
Excluded from the studies were children with “interfering health
conditions,” which could be assumed to have included, autism and prior
neurological disorders, even though the CDC has reported that 1 in 6
children in the U.S. has a neurodevelopmental disorder. However, in
determining that amalgams should remain a viable clinical option in dental
restorative treatment, the authors did not point out that their conclusion
cannot apply to children with neurodevelopmental disorders.
In summary, the major problems with the studies published in JAMA is they:
1. Neglected to measure the amount of mercury exposure to children by first
determining the amount of mercury emitted from an average sized amalgam
outside of the mouth.
2. Used urine and blood mercury levels even though 90% plus of mercury is
excreted in the feces. This obviates their conclusions (and what their data
shows) that urine mercury levels are unreliable with regards to exposure.
3. Did not select the most sensitive clinical testing parameters for
detecting mercury toxicity but instead used testing parameters that are
known to fluctuate without known cause, or parameters that require long-term
low level exposure to show an affect.
4. Did not state that their conclusions of amalgam safety should not include
children with any prior neurodevelopmental or systemic illness.
5. Ignored the drop in mercury excretion in the urine after year 2 even
though the mercury exposure from amalgams remained the same or increased.
The drop in excretion is a sure sign that the body is losing its ability to
excrete mercury in reaction to increased exposure to this toxic metal.
 T A DeRouen et al Neurobehavioral Effects of Dental Amalgam in children
a Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA, April 19, 2006_Vol. 295, #15 pp.1784-1792
 D C Bellinger et al. Neuropsychological and Renal Effects of Dental
amalgam in Children A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA April 19, 2006 Vol. 295
 Amy S. Holmes, Mark F. Blaxill, Boyd E. Haley Reduced Levels of Mercury
in First Baby Haircut of Autistic Children, International Journal of
Toxicology 22:277-285, 2003
 GET FRENCH PORPHYRIN REFERENCE FROM BOYD
 Hani Atamna and William H. Frey II, A roll for heme in Alzheimer's
disease: Heme binds amyloid Beta and has altered metabolism Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) July 27, 2004 Vol. 101 #30
 Escheverria, D., Woods, JS et al. Chronic low-level mercury exposure,
BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) polymorphism, and associations with
cognitive and motor function. Neurotoxicol. Teratol, 2005 Nov-Dec; 27(6)
 Escheverria, D. Woods, JS, et al. The association between a genetic
polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase, dental mercury exposure and
neurobehavioral response in humans. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2005 Dec 8
 Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL: Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury;
Estimation of daily dose from dental amalgam. J Dent Res 64(8):1072-5, 1985
 Kingman et al. J. Dental Research 77(3) 461, 1998. In a study of 1,127
military personnel by NIH the level of mercury in the urine of amalgam
bearers was 4.5 times that of amalgam free controls. Some with extensive
amalgams had levels 8 times or high than the amalgam free controls.
 Kingman et al. J. Dental Research 77(3) 461, 1998. In a study of 1,127
military personnel by NIH the level of mercury in the urine of amalgam
bearers was 4.5 times that of amalgam free controls. Some with extensive
amalgams had levels 8 times or high than the amalgam free controls.
 Skare I & Engqvist A. Amalgam restorations - an important source of
human exposure of mercury and silver. LÄKARTIDNINGEN 15:1299-1301, 1992
 Chew et al. Clinical Preventive Dentistry 13(3) 5-7, 1991. In a study
of long term dissolution of mercury from an non-mercury releasing amalgam it
was determined that 43.5 microgram/cm2/day Hg was released and this remained
constant for 2 years
 NOTICE: In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C., section 107, some material
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scholarship and research under the "fair use" provisions of federal
copyright laws. These materials may not be distributed further, except for
"fair use" non-profit educational purposes, without permission of the
 Wataha et al. Dental Materials 10 298-303, 1994. The amalgam material
with the trade name Dispersal Alloy made solutions in which it was soaked
 Frustaci et al. J American College of Cardiology 33(6) 1578, 1999. Data
showed that individuals who died with IDCM (idiopathic dilated
cardiomyopathy, the cause of young athletes dying during physical stress)
had 22,000 times more mercury in their heart tissues than individuals who
died of other forms of heart disease. Never has there been a urine or blood
level reported that comes to the level of 178,400 ng/g tissue which is the
same as 178.4 micrograms/g and one milliliter water weighs 1 gram. In the
study under discussion they were talking about 3-5 micrograms/liter (1,000
milliliters) or so which compares to 178.400 micrograms/1000g in IDCM. Where
does this mercury come from as this disease kills intercity kids as much as
anyone and they are not big seafood eaters.
 Saxe SR, Snowdon DA, Wekstein MW, et al. Dental amalgam and cognitive
function in older women: findings from the nun study. JADA
 Hultman, P. et al. Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity
induced by dental amalgam and alloy in mice. The FASEB Journal 8 Nov
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