Certiva Online, Description, Chemistry, Ingredients - Certiva - RxList Monographs
Diphtheria toxin is derived from Corynebacterium diphtheriae grown in
Stainerís Diphtheria Culture Medium, containing casein hydrolysate, and is
purified by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Tetanus toxin is
derived from Clostridium tetani grown in modified Mueller and Miller Medium,
containing casein hydrolysate, and is purified by precipitation with ammonium
sulfate.2 The purified diphtheria and tetanus toxins are detoxified using
The diphtheria toxin is produced by growing Corynebacterium diphtheriae in
Fenton medium containing a bovine extract. Tetanus toxin is produced by
growing Clostridium tetani in a modified Latham medium derived from bovine
casein. The bovine materials used in these extracts are sourced from
countries which the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has
determined neither have nor are at risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
Both toxins are detoxified with formaldehyde, concentrated by ultrafiltration,
and purified by precipitation, dialysis, and sterile filtration.
Distribution of adsorbed antigen in mono-valent and
Garry L. Morefielda, Harm HogenEschb, J. Paul Robinsonc and Stanley L. Hem, ,
a Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, 575
Stadium Mall Drive, Room 124, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2051, USA b Department
of Veterinary Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
c Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Received 13 August 2003; Revised 20 October 2003; accepted 23 October
2003. Available online 17 December 2003.
The distribution of alpha-casein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin and
recombinant protective antigen (rPA) in mono-valent and combination vaccines
containing aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was studied by fluorescence microscopy
and flow cytometry. Green and red fluorescent probes were conjugated to the
antigens. Adsorption isotherms of the fluorescently labeled proteins to
aluminum hydroxide adjuvant demonstrated that incorporation of the
fluorescent probe did not significantly affect the adsorption. In mono-valent
vaccine systems, antigen adsorption occurred within one minute and uniform
surface coverage of the adjuvant aggregates was observed within 1 h. Content
uniformity was achieved through a cycle of de-aggregation and re-aggregation
of the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant aggregates caused by mixing. For
combination vaccines, two antigens
were adsorbed separately to the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant prior to
combination. Following combination, cycles of de-aggregation and
re-aggregation occurred due to mixing, which led to uniform distribution of
both antigens. The results of this study indicate that content uniformity
should not be an issue during the production of mono-valent or combination
vaccines as long as adequate
mixing procedures are followed.
Author Keywords: Content uniformity in mono-valent and combination vaccines;
Antigen adsorption by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant; Fluorescence microscopy;
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-765-494-1451; fax: +1-765-494-6545
Autism and Malnutrition: The Milk Connection
To understand autism we can begin this journey from
what we have learned about how seemingly insignificant dietary changes
can affect newborn primates. In October 1975, three Japanese scientists
raised a group of infant primates. By artificial nursing, these primates
were fed a casein powdered milk formula. When they modified the infant
formula to reduce the content of protein and increased the lactose to
supplement the appropriate number of calories, the primate infants
developed abnormal behaviors such as stereotype rocking, fear,
aggression, head banging and other autistic-like behaviors. Completely
unaware of what they had discovered, the scientists had induced autism in
a clinical setting.
Now, they were aware that by reducing the protein
content they caused the infants to become malnourished. They also
observed that without human contact some infants were much more impaired.
They learned that the infants that received the standard solution were
reared successfully. At that time they concluded that a protein
deficiency had caused a decline in physical and mental growth. Subsequent
studies have supported this, whereby protein deficiency does cause
Autism Versus Developmental
But it is important to know which symptoms are truly
autistic and which are that of developmental delay. These disorders are
often used interchangeably, but they are very different. For example,
hand flapping is an autistic symptom, but it is not a common
characteristic of developmental delay. In developmental delay children
are often slow to learn, and will quickly fall behind their peers. The
symptoms of these primates were more than just symptoms of developmental
delay--they were symptoms of autism.
The most important information we have about these
infant primates is that the researchers had also increased the lactose
content in their diet. If the quantity of protein matched that of the
quantity of lactose, this might not have occurred, or it might also have
occurred if they had been fed too much protein. The standard formula
given to the infant primates that were reared successfully were given the
same amount of lactose, and what would have been the normal amount of
protein for these size mammals.
Lactose and Autism
Lactose is the key to unraveling what happened to
these infants. Bacteria use lactose, or milk sugar, as a nutrient base.
Bifidobacteria and clostridia use lactose, and they often describe these
strains of bacteria as lactose-fermenting bacteria. One difference in
Bifidobacteria and Clostridia is that only one can produce significant
amounts of ammonia, only one can damage the intestines. Milk
oligosaccharides contain lactose; they are fermented in the infant colon
where they selectively stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria. Clostridia
are competitors of Bifidobacteria, and Clostridia produce ammonia.
Ammonia and only ammonia produced from bacteria could have caused the
The infant primates had developed symptoms of autism
because there was protein restriction, milk proteins needed for ammonia
detoxification, and not necessarily just casein. They were fed lactose
and lactose ferments ammonia, producing bacteria. They were unable to
detoxify on a protein-deficient diet. It is a simple formula:
Protein + Lactose = Normal Development
Low protein + High Lactose = Autism
But protein malnutrition does not equal autism nor
does lactose feeding equal autism. However,
Protein malnutrition + high-lactose feeding + (the
unknown factor) = Autism
There has to be an unknown factor for this to occur, a
combination of things that all relate to one another. The unknown factor
can be found by testing these three variables. We have to review other
information that we have on children with autism to give us the correct
answer to the unknown factor.
A low-protein diet offsets a nitrogen balance to
detoxify ammonia, whereas lactose feeding ferments bacteria. The only
variable that could account for the unknown factor is ammonia. In autism,
there are signs of ammonia detoxification, for example when GABA and
nitric oxide are increased. So instead of developing overt ammonia
toxicity, they are able to detoxify this excess ammonia. As encouraging
as this sounds it still depletes cellular energy. Many parents can recall
'staring spells' as the first behavioral change in a child prior to
autistic regression. This can be the first sign of increased blood
Other symptoms found in children with only minimal
increases in blood ammonia were:
Loss of acquired speech
Stereotype hand movements
Generalized epileptic discharges
Auditory and visual hallucinations
Finegold and his colleagues have published three
studies on children with autism. The first study was with the use of
antibiotics. The second study of stool specimens indicated a vast
overpopulation of Clostridia in children with autism. Many physicians use
antibiotics for treatment of elevated blood ammonia to kill the
ammonia-producing bacteria. Antibiotics have produced dramatic effects in
children with autism, however this treatment did inevitably fail.
Experiments with fermented foods after antibiotic treatments have been
somewhat successful in preventing relapsing Clostridial infections.
Live Bacteria to Temper
As many of us already know, treatment with probiotic
supplements at most show only minor, if any, improvement in autistic
symptoms. These can sometimes take weeks or even months to take affect or
may never have any effect. The reason for this is that when probiotic
bacteria are dried and then rehydrated, even with prebiotic assistance it
takes time for these bacteria to reestablish a colony. When live bacteria
are frozen they can re-colonize within 24 hours at room temperature, but
when bacteria are heat-killed they induce an immune response and their
ability to re-colonize is remote. Each time we consume foods with
heat-killed bacteria it produces an immune response.
Every time we receive a vaccination with heat-killed
bacteria or a heat-killed virus, it produces a similar immune response.
Live bacteria such as that of lactic acid bacteria can temper these
immune responses. The infant primates were fed heat-treated formulas,
Clostridia is an opportunist infection, looking for a chance to colonize.
However, Clostridia is also a natural inhabitant of the colon. The
problem here with heat-treated foods is that you might as well say they
are sterile. If you are feeding sterile foods, they don't contain
bacteria that can form
a colony. So in order to colonize bacteria you have to consume foods with
live bacteria or an opportunist will take that invitation.
Breast-fed babies are colonized naturally by
Bifidobacteria. Babies fed formula develop much more harmful fecal
environments. Preterm infants are especially at risk for Clostridrial
infections because there is usually a delay in breast feeding. In older
children generally pathogenic Clostridial infections develop after
antibiotic treatment, which can destroy the beneficial bacteria derived
from the mother.
Impaired Digestion and
Pasteurized milk causes the impaired digestion of
casein and other proteins found in milk. Malnutrition is caused by either
an insufficient diet or an impaired utilization of foods. Malabsorption
is the impairment of intestinal absorption of nutrients. Some children
with protein-calorie deficiency had abnormal intestinal fat absorption,
and because of this they had an increased uptake of serotonin in the
plasma. One scientific study found hyperserotoninaemia in 70 percent of
their autistic patients. It should come as no surprise that serotonin
uptake inhibitors have had some success in treating autistic children.
The medical literature supports the realization that protein deficiency
causes developmental delay and even mild increases in ammonia causes
oddities in behavior.
Some methods of ammonia detoxification have been
suggested with the use of lactulose, oral lactulose and the drug
Tributyrate, which can scavenge excess ammonia. Lactulose can cause
extreme irritability in children, and perhaps its use with autistic
children was abandoned due to these circumstances.
Impacted Colons and
Children with autism frequently have impacted colons.
Clostridia is notorious for reducing the quantity of water in the colon.
Hard dry stools can cause irritability once stool-softening products are
started. These stools might only be removed by using an enema prior to
beginning any stool-softening treatment. Once the bowels have been
cleared of extremely hard, dry stools, then treatment with stool
softeners can begin.
What we have to consider is the matter of colonizing
bacteria. A healthy colon in a normal infant contains a significant
supply of Bifidobacteira. Pasteurized milk simply putrefies in the colon
and hinders the passage of fecal matter.
milk contains heat-killed bacteria and is unable to reflourish the
colon with host-friendly bacteria--unless contaminated, it is sterile.
When milk proteins are damaged by heat processing it
renders them indigestible.
Raw milk does
not cause constipation. Constipation is caused by the loss of moisture.
Lactose and lactulose add moisture back to the colon, but clostridia can
quickly dry up the feces. Raw milk is easily digestible by infants, for
as long as babies have been born mothers have been feeding their young
casein and other milk proteins. Clostridia can feed on unabsorbed lactose
from the diet. Lactose is completely hydrolyzed in cheeses made with
Autism and Casein-Free Diets
Science cannot support the presumption that a
casein-free diet reduces autistic symptoms. All the literature on casein
restriction indicates this only causes a developmental delay. If an
improvement is seen on a casein-free diet, it is only because of the
removal of free lactose, and the removal of constipating foods. The very worst thing that you can do to a child coping
with mercury is to wean them off of breast or raw milk. Weaning causes
the hair and blood mercury levels to suddenly drop, and it is re-routed
to the colon for excretion. If the child is constipated, it could mean
Now we know three Japanese researchers were able to
induce autism in a clinical setting, with a low-protein, high-lactose,
sterilized formula. The belief that infant-mother separation or the
refrigerator mother causes autistic symptoms continued for many years.
Understanding what happened to these infant primates could have changed
the course of medical history. Unfortunately, two new theories of what
causes autistic symptoms have followed.
Treating Autistic Symptoms
To treat the symptoms of autism, we have to feed our
children foods that they can digest, foods that do not cause
constipation, foods that will give them back the bacterial environment to
temper these inflammatory conditions. And most importantly return to
proper nitrogen-ammonia balance.
Treatment should begin with a healthy diet, high in
quality protein foods such as eggs, meat, milk and cheese and balanced
essential oils. Raw goat's or raw cow's milk may be given. If not well
milk/kefir can be used. Oral, inexpensive butyrate may be given to
both clean the colon and to detoxify ammonia from the liver and bowels.
To finalize, there are still the issues of treating
malabsorption, the impairment of intestinal absorption of nutrients and
abnormal intestinal fat absorption. To begin nutritional rehabilitation
for your child you will need some help navigating through the complicated
process. Dr. Patricia Kane has treated thousands of children with autism
over the past 25 years who have not only had malnutrition, but also
abnormal intestinal fat absorption. Restoration of digestive function is
critical to absorbing dietary essential fatty acids and stabilizing the
Japanese scientists in 1975 documented the development
of autistic symptoms and revealed how diet can induce these symptoms. In
2004 we now have the tools to eradicate the symptoms of autism.
From: "Robert Cohen" <email@example.com>
Subject: NY Times Milk Reporting Cause Mucus
Read the New York Times for really bad health advice, and keep in mind this
fact: Full page milk mustache ads often have influence over editorial
content. The latest NY Times milk promo claims that milk consumption
does not cause mucus. That story is dated Aug. 10, 2004:
(You may have to sign up for this service
When designing phony scientific studies, the outcome can be easily
manipulated based upon experimental bias. Got milk dollars? Many scientific
researchers do. Dairy industry-financed mucus studies test human
subjects shortly after they consume milk, and then finding no immediate
effect, incorrectly conclude that milk consumption does not cause mucus.
Milk proteins, particularly casein, do indeed cause mucus, but the allergic
reaction in which internally secreted histamines produce mucus can often take
12-15 hours. By that time, the human subjects have gone home from the study,
and the real results are not observed.
Let's take a look at a tragic study of just one individual. Her name was
Florence Griffith Joyner. People called her Flo Jo. This great athlete won
Olympic medals in the 1984 and 1988 games. Ten years later, she would die
from the mucus created after her last meal, pizza. No phony study predicted
her fate, or the fate of thousands of others who are similarly affected each
year. In Flo Jo's case, the mucus took 15 hours to congest the bronchioles of
her lungs so acutely that breathing was no longer possible.
Flo Jo ate pizza at 3 PM. Fifteen hours later she would die. Undigested
mozzarella cheeze the size of a brick would be found by the coroner in her
stomach. Fifteen hours, and still undigested. Flo Jo's fingermarks were on
her own throat. She could not breathe, and her last living act was to
grab at her own throat, futily gasping for breath. The congestion had
progressed from lungs to other organs. Her death was inevitable.
Residues of two drugs were detected in Flo Jo's blood. One was aspirin and
the other Benadryl. Benadryl is an antihistamine. Flo Jo had histamines
produced in her body. She was congested. She took Benadryl to relive her
Here is what the autopsy reveals about Flo Jo's internal organs. The coroner
"The lobes of the lungs are light-pink-to-dark-purple with marked congestion
and a large amount of frothy fluid exuding with pressure. The lumen of the
tracheobronchial tree contains mucus and frothy fluid." Flo Jo's lungs were
congested. She could not breathe.
OTHER BODY ORGANS - ALL CONGESTED
"The small and large bowels show congestion...the liver has a congested
appearance... pancreas, congested appearance... the pyramids of the kidneys
are congested... section shows marked acute congestion...cut sections of the
adrenal glands show acute congestion...a large amount of frothy fluid is
present in the larynx...cut sections of the thyroid gland show
congestion...congestion is noted in the pancreas."
On and on, organ after organ, filled with a glue produced by the body's
defense to this powerful allergen and tenacious glue.
Flo Jo paid for her ignorance with her precious and beautiful life.
Milk and dairy products cause Crohn's disease, mucous and
irritable bowel syndrome -- interview with Robert Cohen
The following is part one of an interview with Robert Cohen, author of "Milk,
the Deadly Poison," and www.Notmilk.com
Mike Adams: Would you be willing to provide an overview for people who aren't
familiar with the real story of dairy products and cow's milk? What are the
main things people need to know about milk that they don't already know?
Robert Cohen: The real story is that dairy products are the tastiest foods on
this planet. There is nothing more delicious than cheese -- a day without
cheese is a day without sunshine. Milk is yummy, especially if you take 12
pounds of it and get rid of all the water, mix it with sugar, freeze it and
put a cherry on top. Milk, dairy, cheese, ice cream, yogurt -- I don't know
how I ever lived without these things. I was probably the biggest dairy
consumer in the state of New Jersey where I lived, and so were my kids. Until
one day something called genetic engineering hit our table, and I started
investigating whether I wanted my kids to drink good old wholesome milk, or
the genetically engineered milk.
I used to run a lab -- I did research, and I tried to take a pretty fair look
at all of the controversies regarding genetic engineering. This was back in
'94, and I started reading scientific journal articles about GMO milk. I
started investigating, calling Monsanto and speaking with their scientists.
One day it hit me -- after doing a week, a month, a year of investigations,
it hit me -- it's milk, stupid! Cow's milk, every sip of cow's milk has virus
in it; and pus and bacteria, powerful growth hormones, proteins that cause
allergies, antibiotics, pesticides, fat cholesterol and dioxin -- now, which
one of these things do you want in your body?
Mike Adams: Now this is a big shock, I think, for most people to hear this
kind of information.
Robert Cohen: Well, you know, it really isn't a shock, because most of your
listeners, if I said to them, "Here's a nice ice-cold glass of pig milk to
drink with your brownies," or "How about some dog milk with your chocolate
chip cookies," they'd get sick. They'd say, "No way!" They'd know
instinctively not to do it. As a matter of fact, you couldn't even tempt them
with a chilled glass of human breast milk. They'd get sick at the thought of
it; because they know that there are substances in those milks that were
intended for the young of the species.
And those substances have names -- they are lactopherins, immunoglobins --
you don't want to eat estrogen everyday, and progesterone, and proactin and
melatonin and oxytocin, and I can go on and on and name 59 different hormones
in every sip of milk. That's what milk is -- it's a hormonal delivery system.
And you don't want dog hormones or pig hormones. You don't want cow hormones.
You don't even, as an adult, want human breast milk hormones.
Mike Adams: That's right -- it's perfect food for infants, but not for
adults. I always found it interesting that adult human beings chose to
consume a food, a liquid food, from another species.
Robert Cohen: It is kind of interesting, and in the name of good health, at
least make them healthy animals. But the 9 million cows in America, for the
most part, are not healthy. Half the herds in America have cows affected with
bovine leukemia virus, half the herds have cows infected with a disease
called Crohn's disease, which is caused by a bacterium called mycobacterium
paratuberculosis, which 40 million Americans have been affected with
irritable bowel syndrome from this. Every person with Crohn's disease tests
positive for mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Every one! One hundred percent!
And this was published in 1965 for the Proceedings for the National Academy
of Science. So we're talking about real science, here, not things Iím making
up. You've got thousands of studies published in scientific journals,
thousands of converging lines of evidence that tell us that milk does not do
the body any good. We drink body fluids from diseased animals.
Mike Adams: What about hidden sources of milk, because there are a lot of
products that have milk or milk proteins -- I know a lot of protein bars, for
example are made with milk proteins.
Robert Cohen: Well, sure. You've got to see the word "whey," you say "no
way!" You see the word "casein," "sodium caseinate," "calcium caseinate" --
that's the milk powder protein that you don't want in your body. When you
take milk and you get rid of the fat and you get rid of the water and you're
just left with protein, and basically they're blood proteins, serumalbumin,
milk protein, 90% of it is casein. Now, casein, when it's extracted from
milk, it's actually a glue used to put a label on a bottle of beer. It's the
glue used to hold together the wood in your furniture. When you eat this
casein, this glue from milk, and your body is seeing this foreign protein,
and you're producing these histamines which end up as mucus. And that's why
it is mucus-forming. Again, it's a process that takes 10 to 12 hours.
Mike Adams: So what other types of foods or protein bars or any other kind of
product will people find this casein?
Robert Cohen: Well, sometimes you'll find it in tuna fish, believe it or not.
Sometimes you'll see it in certain cereals -- it's used as a glue to hold
together certain foods. But what's remarkable is you'll look at things in the
supermarket, non-dairy creamers, for example, and you see non-dairy creamer
written on the front, then you turn it to the back and you look at the small
print, and you'll see "sodium caseinate, a milk derivative." I do not know
how they get away with calling something non-dairy when it's dairy. But
you've got to learn to read the tiny print on labels. If you see the word
"casein" in any way, shape, or form, caseinate, that's milk from cows --
don't eat it.
Mike Adams: Food manufacturers, as you know, are pretty creative with their
labels. I've seen avocado dip, guacamole, with no avocados in it!
Robert Cohen: You're kidding me! That's amazing!
Mike Adams: Yeah! It's hydrogenated oils and artificial color.
Robert Cohen: That's scary.
Mike Adams: And that's the main stuff you get-- you have to go to a health
food store or somewhere special...
Robert Cohen: Well, you see the problem here Mike is that we don't have a
very strong guacamole lobby. But we do have a strong dairy lobby, I'll tell
you that. Continue with part two.
Learn more about: Robert Cohen | cow's milk | dairy products
Milk and dairy products cause Crohn's disease, mucous and irritable bowel
syndrome -- interview with Robert Cohen
Consequences of Hidden Milk in Groceries
Eighty percent of milk protein is casein. When casein is extracted from milk,
it is used as a glue to hold together processed foods. When you eat casein,
histamines are produced, then mucus.
Last night, I ate pizza at a vegetarian friend's house. I was assured that
the cheese used was vegan. This morning, my body assures me that it was not.
I am fully congested. Such coincidences do not happen. My body is so finely
tuned, that it exists as a barometer to my own internal atmosphere.
I do not eat meat, but I learned long ago that if one orders baloney or
salami or pepperoni from the deli counter, one is also ordering milk. You
see, milk protein holds together the finished product. Casein binds ground
sausage and hot dogs like a tenacious glue. Eat hidden casein in meat
products and you will need to cleanse yourself many hours later. Usually,
that is an overnight experience. As one sleeps, the histamines clog internal
organs, blood, intestines, and lungs. Upon waking, one's first response is to
spit up phlegm. The next few waking hours are spent expelling phlegm and
mucus. Those companies marketing Kleenex and Charmin become the
Ten to fifteen hours after ingesting casein, you are guaranteed to know the
congesting effects. You'll spit up phlegm, and your morning (or next) bowel
movement will be pure sludge. I do not have to get too descriptive. You've
experienced this same effect too. Be aware that "non-dairy" products
may contain casein. A list of label ingredients containing milk protein
might surprise you. Some of the ingredients surprised me, and I thought that
I knew almost everything there was to know about milk ingredients in food.
Clearly, I did not.
The following information comes from:
"These ingredients may contain milk protein - ammonium, butter, rtificial
butter, butter solids/fat, calcium, caramel color, caramel flavoring, casein,
caseinate, ammonium caseinate, calcium caseinate, hydrolyzed casein,
iron caseinate, magnesium caseinate, potassium caseinate, rennet casein,
sodium caseinate, sodium caseinate solids, zinc caseinate, cheese, cream,
curds, flavoring, high protein flour, lactate, lactic acid, lactalbumin,
lactalbumin phosphate, lactoferrin, lactaglobulin, lactose, magnesium,
margarine, milk, buttermilk, milk derivative, milk fat, milk protein, milk
solids, skim milk, powdered milk, dried milk, dry milk solids, sour milk
solids, hydrolyzed milk protein, natural flavoring, Opta (fat replacer),
Simplesse (fat replacer), sour cream solids, whey, delactosed whey,
demineralized whey, whey protein concentrate, whey powder, and yogurt."
Those "natural flavorings" will get you every time. When contacting
manufacturers, you will usually be told that the "natural flavorings" are
"Proprietary." That means, secret. The same individual will not know whether
or not they are "dairy." Often times, neither will the food scientists, since
natural flavorings are manufactured for food processors by third parties. In
other words, avoid those foods with natural flavorings. These chemicals do
not do the body any good.
Take responsiblity for your actions. If you do the wrong thing the night
before, expect to face the consequences the morning after.
Back to page