mystery with enormous implications has stumped some of the smartest minds in
cancer research. How, might a cancer-causing monkey virus, wind up in human
tumors? The mystery began in 1988 with Dr. Michael Carbone. He found the
SV40 virus in 60% of the human lung tumors he was studying, (SV40 stands for
Simian Virus the 40th virus found). Eventually, sixty different
labs confirmed the results.
the same year in Boston, two researchers stumbled onto something disturbing.
Dr. Robert Garcea and his assistant, Dr. John Bergsagel, were using a
powerful new tool called polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, to look for a
pair of common human viruses in children's brain tumors. But a different DNA
footprint kept popping up in more than half the tumors. They finally
realized they were seeing SV40. For more than a decade, scientists had
reported sporadic findings of SV40-like proteins in human tumors. But the
earlier tests were primitive and the results suspect. PCR, however, is
capable of amplifying infinitesimal fragments of DNA, which makes detections
far more credible. The findings were troubling. The researchers noted in
their published report that the children were too young to have received the
contaminated vaccine. But somehow the virus had infected them and embedded
itself in their tumors.
PCR unleashed a wave of SV40
discoveries. By the end of 1996, dozens of scientists reported finding SV40
in a variety of bone cancers and a wide range of brain cancers, which had
risen 30 percent over the previous 20 years. Then, Italian researchers
SV40 in 45
percent of the seminal fluid samples and 23 percent of the blood samples
they had taken from healthy donors. That meant SV40 could have been
spreading through sexual activity, from mother to child, or by other means,
which could explain how those never inoculated with the contaminated
vaccine, such as the Boston children, were being infected.
Oral Sabin Polio
vaccine is cultured in
monkey kidney tissue. Vaccine makers insist every
batch of Polio vaccine is screened for contaminants such as SV40. But a
lawyer involved in a recent Polio case just published a report claiming the
contamination continues. "Many here voice a silent view that the Salk and
Sabin Polio vaccine, being made of monkey kidney tissue has been directly
responsible for the major increase in Leukemia in this country,” states Dr.
Frederick Klenner Polio Researcher, USA. This disease hardly occurs in the
West anymore. However, it seems the days of Polio are still with us. Not in
the form of acute viral outbreaks of fever and paralysis, but in the
unexplored statistics on the long-term effects from the viral contaminated
Polio vaccines given to countless children and adults three decades ago. What
other undetectable monkey viruses have been transmitted in the vaccine
batches lately? These unanswered questions continue to resurface in
today's research and still riddle retired scientist Ben Sweet. As a senior
research scientist for a major pharmaceutical company from 1959 to 1964, Dr.
Sweet was one of those responsible for the research, development and
field-testing of the killed Polio virus vaccine. As many as
twenty six of the Simian contaminants were readily detected but still other
viruses, like SV40 slipped past rigorous quality control testing procedures
available at that time.
years after the development of the Salk vaccine, Bernice Eddy of the
National Institutes of Health discovered the contamination of the vaccine
with SV40. she noticed something strange while looking through her
microscope. Monkey kidney cells, the same kind used to make the vaccine.
were dying without apparent cause. So she tried an experiment. She prepared
kidney extracts from eight to ten rhesus monkeys and injected tiny amounts
under the skin of twenty-three new born hamsters. Within nine months,
‘large, malignant, subcutaneous tumors’ appeared on twenty of the animals.
On July 6, 1960, concerned that a monkey virus might be contaminating the
polio vaccine, Eddy took her findings to Dr. Joseph Smadel, chief of the
NIH’s biologics division. Smadel dismissed the tumors as harmless ‘lumps.’
The same year, however, at a Merck laboratory in Pennsylvania,
Hilleman (don't miss this video) and Dr. Ben Sweet isolated the virus. They called it simian virus
40, or SV40, because it was the 40th virus found in rhesus kidney
In the aftermath of the debacle, Bernice Eddy was taken
off of polio research and transferred to the influenza section by the
thankless NIH management. She shared her frustrations with a small group of
women scientists who ate brown-bag lunches on the steps of one of the
laboratories. There, Eddy met a tenacious woman scientist named Sarah
Stewart, who was waging her own battle against the official paradigms of
bureaucratic medicine. Bernice Eddy and Sarah Stewart became close friends.
Sarah Stewart’s name remains virtually unknown today despite her
huge contribution to modern medicine. Not only did she prove that some
cancers were caused by viruses, but subsequent research on the virus she
discovered led o the discovery of DNA recombination, which is the most
powerful tool in medical research today.
From the beginning, Sarah Stewart promoted the idea that cancer was
caused by viruses. Due to this, she was not well accepted by the NIH or NCI
staffs who described her as ‘an eccentric lady’ determined to prove her
theory was right. ‘No one believed her .’ Finally, she was
given access to an NCI laboratory in Bethesda where she could
try to prove her theories. In 1953, she almost succeeded, but her work was
not accepted by the ruling crowd at NIH. They found her methods sloppy and
objected to the fact that she did not culture her viruses. So in 1956, her
lunch partner Bernice Eddy showed Sarah Stewart how to grow her viruses in a
culture of mouse cells. She now had all the ingredients she needed and began
a series of experiments which are called ‘classic’ by modern day NIH
In 1957, Stewart and Eddy discovered the polyoma virus which
produced several types of cancer in a variety of small mammals. Polyoma
proved that some cancers were indeed caused by viruses. Her discovery
officially threw open the doors of cancer virology. As Rabson phrased it,
‘Suddenly, the whole place just exploded after Sarah found polyoma.’ It was
the beginning of a new era of hope. But it raised some dark questions
about earlier deeds. Before long Yale’s laboratory discovered that the
polyoma virus that had produced the cancer in Stewart’s mice and hamsters
turned out to be virtually identical to Simian Virus #40 (SV-40). In October
1960, Eddy gave a talk to the Cancer Society in New York and, without
warning NIH in advance, announced that she had examined cells from the
monkeys kidneys in which the polio virus was grown and had found they were
infected with cancer causing viruses. Her inference was clear: There were
cancer-causing monkey viruses in the polio vaccine. She warned an
epidemic of cancer in America was in the making. When the word got
back to her NIH bosses, they exploded in anger. When the cussing stopped,
they crushed Bernice Eddy professionally. Any mention of cancer-causing
monkey viruses in the polio vaccine was not welcomed by NIH. They took away
her lab, destroyed her animals, put her under a gag order, prevented her
from attending professional meetings, and delayed publication of her
scientific paper. In the words of Edward Shorter, author of The Health
Century, ‘Her treatment became a scandal within the scientific
community.’ Later, it became the subject of a congressional inquiry. In the
words of Dr. Lawrence Kilham, a fellow NIH researcher who wrote a latter of
protest to the Surgeon General’s office, ‘the presence of a cancer virus in
the polio virus vaccine is the matter demanding full investigation.
Dr. Adi Gazdar of the University of
Texas, who led the second study, said it had to be more than coincidence
that the four types of tumors found in hamsters after injection with SV40,
brain, bone, mesothelioma and lymphomas, are now exactly the same tumor
types in humans found with detectable levels of SV40.
Sweet said, “It was a frightening discovery because, back then, it was not
possible to detect the virus with the testing procedures we had. The Simian
Viruses were inadvertently introduced into the vaccine pool because the
Polio virus was grown in monkey (Rhesus, Patas, or Cynomolgus) kidney
cells.” In his 1960 paper, The Vacuolating Virus: SV40, Sweet and co-author
M.R. Hilleman wrote, "This new virus represents the detection for the first
time of a hitherto non-detectable Simian Virus of monkey renal cultures and
raises the important question of the existence of other such viruses.” Sweet
says there were two things that the research team had determined: "First, we
knew that SV40 had cancer-causing properties in hamsters which was bad news.
Secondly, we found out that it hybridized with certain DNA viruses, like
Adeno virus.” When you introduce unstable animal viruses into man, there is
a risk of recombinant (the formation of new combinations of linked genes)
events occurring which can produce new kinds of diseases.
For example the Adeno virus
would then have SV40 genes attached to it. All three types of Sabin's live
Poliovirus vaccine were contaminated. There were specific laboratory
difficulties associated with Adeno virus, now carrying an attached form of
SV40. Sweet describes, "When we started growing the vaccines, we just
couldn't get rid of the SV40-contaminated virus. We tried to neutralize it,
but couldn't. Either Adeno or SV40 would come out down the line. It was too
late to switch gears and start using raccoon or chicken systems, because
then you could be dealing with another whole set of viruses.”
To some, the term
"contaminated" carries with it intent of malice, but Dr. Sweet says this is
clearly not the case. Sweet noted that persons fed live SV40 contaminated
Poliovirus vaccine orally, or inactivated Salk-type vaccine intramuscularly,
showed strong evidence of antibody production to Polioviruses. In addition,
the vaccine recipients were not showing significant harmful effects or
antibody production, in the short term, to SV40, which was encouraging. By
1968, all sorts of viruses,
Adenovirus, Papovaviruses (there are 120
types of human papillomavirus (HPV) identified. HPV causes essentially all
cervical cancer and anogenital warts. HPV is a DNA tumor virus similar to
SV40 and polyomavirus),
Herpes viruses, Poxviruses, Picornaviruses,
Enteroviruses, Myxoviruses and Reoviruses had been discovered. Additional
overlooked viral contaminants included
commonly called mononucleosis and Simian
Cytomegalovirus. Infection with
(CMV) is the leading cause of congenital deafness, blindness, mental
retardation, and seizures secondary to maternal infection and accounts for
disease in 40,000 infants per year in the United States. Simian foamy retroviruses
were also found and that included the unique AIDS-linked enzyme "reverse
transcriptase." The virus numbers were up to
Hilleman would later explain
that government officials were worried that any potentially negative
information could ignite a panic and jeopardize the vaccination campaign.
With the exception of viral
vaccines, no pharmaceutical product intended for human use requires the use
of simian cultures. The cross-species cultivation of vaccines is clearly
laden with risks, risks that may be irreversible, carrying consequences too
great to endure. The fact that the original
vaccines were contaminated and current Polio vaccines are still
grown on African Green Monkey tissues is just one more indication that
government vaccine officials have created dangerous public health policies.
Some doctors are of the
belief that Polio has not been eradicated by vaccination, that it is lurking
behind a redefinition and new diagnostic names like Viral or Aseptic
Meningitis. As the recorded cases of "Polio" continued to decline, there was
a significant increase in "Cerebral palsy" or "Aseptic (Viral) Meningitis"
and "Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
For example, in Los
Angeles County in 1955, reported cases of Polio numbered 273. Reported cases
of Aseptic Meningitis, which has a clinical course similar to Polio, were
50. The Polio vaccine was introduced in 1956. In
1966, reported cases of Polio had dropped to 50, however, cases of aseptic
Meningitis had risen to 256. It is possible that now that vaccines are
widely available, only infections with
classical symptoms are diagnosed and counted in compiling disease rates, artificially lowering
reported incidence. (Miller, 1994).
Take a look at
the definitions from Encarta for Polio then compare them to Meningitis.
Polio as defined by
Early symptoms include
fatigue, headache, fever, vomiting, constipation, stiffness of the neck, or
less commonly, diarrhea and pain in the extremities.
Meningitis as defined
Lethargy, severe headache,
high fever vomiting, stiff neck, back pain, muscle aches, sensitivity of the
eyes to light, drowsiness, confusion, and even loss of consciousness. Some
children have convulsions. In infants, the symptoms of Meningitis are often
more difficult to detect and may include irritability and loss of appetite.
Since 1979 the vaccine
caused the only known cases of Polio. On June 17, 1999 government officials
voted for exclusive use of the inactivated Poliovirus vaccine. There is hope
this vaccination can be abandoned world wide soon.
Check out the
excerpt from a talk by Kihura Nkuba a radio show host in Africa. He found
out about how dangerous this vaccine is.
Don't miss this FDA
sponsored workshop and the discussions on rogue virus in the
Here is an excellent article I just found on yet another monkey virus. This
one causes Kaposi's sarcoma other wise known as the gay cancer. Its by
Dr Alan Cantwell, M.D and appears on Rense.com.
to read it.
Don't miss Neil Z. Miller's article on polio, its excellent.